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Anatomy nervous

Nervous system

QuestionAnswer
What are the functions of the nervous system? 1. receives inputs from outside and inside the body 2. Processes and interprets sensory input 3. Sends response to effector organs (motor output)
What is the central nervous system composed of? Brain and Spinal Cord
What is the Peripheral Nervous System composed of? 1. Cranial nerves and ganglia (12) 2. spinal nerves and ganglia (31)
What is the brain and spinal cord covered by? Meninges
What are the 3 layers of Meninges? 1. Dura 2. Arachnoid 3. Pia maters
Where is the CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid)located? In brain and spinal cord in the subarachnoid space
What do neurons do and where are they found? Transmit electrical signals and are found in grey matter of CNS and ganglia
What are neuroglial cells? 1. Support cells 2. nonexcitable 3. surround and wrap neurons
What are the 4 neuroglial cells in the CNS? 1. Astrocytes 2. Microglia 3. Ependymal cells 4. Oligodendrocytes
What is the function of Astrocytes? 1. Most abundant glial cell 2. Take up and release ions to control the environment around neurons 3. Recapture and recycle neurotransmitters
What is the function of Microglia? 1. Smallest and least abundent 2. Phagocytes: macrophages of the CNS
What is the function of Ependymal Cells? Line central cavity of the spinal cord and brain
What is the function of Oligodendrocytes? Produce myelin sheath in CNS
What are the 2 types of Neuroglial cells in PNS? 1. Satellite Cells 2. Schwann cells
What is the function of Satellite cells? Surround neuron cell body Blood brain barrier
What is the function of Schwann cells? Form myelin sheath around axons of PNS
What does Neurotransmitters do and where are they released from? 1. Excite/ inhibit neurons 2. axon terminals
What is a Synapes? Site at which neurons communicate (pre, post)
Where are the Na+ channels located in axons? nodes of ranvier-signal jumps from node to node
What is an action potential? short-lasting excitation of cell, membrane potential of cell rises rapidly then falls
What is the resting membrane potential? -80mV (net charge outside is positive and inside negative)
How does Neuron maintain polarity after action potential? Pump out Na+ and pump in K+
What are the connective tissues of the nerve from inside out? 1. Endoneurium- surrounds axon 2. Nerve Fascicles- group of axon in bundle 3. Perineurium- surrounds nerve fascicle 4. Epineurium- covers whole nerve in tough fibrous sheath
What is the Conus medullaris? Terminal end of the spinal cord, near (L1)and(L2)
What is the Cauda equina? Dangling nerve roots of spinal cord after Conus medullaris
What is the Filum Terminale? Terminal nerve root tail
What are the 5 essential components of the reflex arc? 1. Receptor 2. Sensory neuron 3. Integration center 4. Motor neuron 5. Effector
Describe receptor component of reflex arc Site where stimulus acts
Describe sensory neuron component of reflex arc transmits afferent impulses to CNS
Describe integration center component of reflex arc consists of one or more synapses in the CNS
Describe motor neuron component of reflex arc Conducts efferent impulses from integration center to an effector
Describe effector component of reflex arc Muscle or gland cell that responds to efferent impulses Contracts or secretes
What does the Reflex arc bypass? Brain
What is monosynaptic reflex and a good example? Reflex upon 1 synapse (fastest) Ex. knee-jerk reflex
What is polysynaptic reflex and a good example? Reflex upon multiple synapse (more common) Ex. Withdrawal reflexes- burn finger, withdraw finger and arm
Created by: xchengster