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Test 2

Dermis Connective tissue; below epidermis
Stratum Basale Deepest layer of epiderm; single cuboidal or columnar layer; basement membrane attaches to dermis; melanocyte production
stratum Spinosum 8-10 layers many-sided cells; produce keratin fibers; form lamellar bodies
Stratum Granulosum 2-5 layers of flat, diamond shaped cells; produces keratohyalin granules and lamellar bodies release lipids from cells (cell dead)
Stratum Lucideum Only in thick skin; shiny; 3-5 layers; dispersion of keratohyalin around keratin
Stratum Corneum 25+ layers dead squamous; water loss prevention; high keratin; sloughs off
Epidermis 4/5 layers stratified squamous; outermost portion of skin; barrier and Vit D production
Papillary Layer Loose CT; bring blood vessels close to epiderm; form foot and finger prints
Reticular Layer Dense Irregular CT; elastin fibers and collagen;forms cleavage lines
Subcutaneous Tissue Attaches dermis to underlying structures; fat tissue stores energy; blood vessels and nerves supply dermal layer
Hair Shaft Part of hair that protrudes above the skin
Hair Root Part of hair below the skin surface; composed of medulla, cortex, and cuticle
Arrector Pili Smooth muscle; responsible for goose bumps
Sebaceous Gland Alveolar glands; secrete oil; keep hair from drying
Merocrine Sweat Gland Located all over body; secrete mostly water
Apocrine Sweat Gland Concentrated in particular regions; secrete water, electrolytes, fatty acids, and organics; can be modified
Free Edge Part of nail that protrudes
Nail Body Pink area attached to skin underneath
Nail Fold Where the edge of the nail meets the skin on the side of the finger
Lunula White moon-shaped area at bed of nail
Eponychium Cuticle
Nail Root Underneath the skin where nail growth originates
Nail Matrix At the end of nail root under the skin
Cancellous Bone Evenly stands forces exerted on it; Trabeculae osteocytes in lacunae; matrix forms lamella rings; lacunae present in lamella
Compact Bone Stands forces from single direction; matrix forms lamella rings, air pockets (lacunae) in lamella, osteon osteocytes in lacunae; large Central Haversian Canals in center
Diaphysis Shaft of bone; primarily compact bone; major BC producer; marrow cavity found here
Epiphysis End of bone; growth phase independent from diaphysis; primarily cancellous
Metaphysis Portion between Dia and Epi; cartilagenous in children and adolescents
Periostem CT that lines the outside of a bone; fibrous; high # BC; makes complete lining
Endostem Inner lining covering only parts of the cavity; found in bones with hollow interior
Osteocytes Mature bone cells that maintain matrix and are surrounded by bony matrix
Osteoblasts Active in producing matrix; surrounds itself then matures into an osteocyte; found on outer region of osteon/trabecula; widens bone structure
Osteoclasts Involved in breaking down bone matrix to release mineral components; important for maintenance; may lead to osteoporosis
Cartilage CT; Hyalin serves as template for forming bones; collagen fibers add flexibility
Bone Matrix Solid material of cartilage composed of collagen and proteoglycan
Proteoglycan Mix of carbs and protiens (binds a lot of water)
Major Mineral Components of Bone Hydroxy Apatite*, Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Hydroxide
Lacunae Openings in the cartilage where chondrocytes (cart cells) are contained
Endochondral Ossification Cart built first, then replaced by bone; most common ossification process
Intramembranous Ossification Mesenchyme replaced directly by bone-no cart needed; found in cranium
Appositional Growth Growth in diameter of a long bone; Osteoblasts build matrix around existing vessels
Fibrous Joint 2 joints connected by fibrous tissue; no cavity; little/no movement
Suture FJ of the skull bones; dense regular collagenous CT
Syndesmoses FJ in which 2 bones are connected by ligaments; some movement
Gomphoses FJ; 2 pegs held in place within a socket by FT
Cartilaginous Joint A joint that unties 2 bones by means of hyaline or fibrocartilage
Synchondroses CRJ; 2 bones joined by hyaline cart; little or no movement (ex:ilium, ischium, pubis)
Symphyses CRJ; fibrocart unites 2 bones (ex:maubrium and body of sternum)
Synovial Joint Freely moveable joints that contain a fluid in a cavity that surrounds the ends of the articulating bones
Fascia Surrounds individual muscles/muscle groups
Epimysium Dense collagenous CT that surrounds muscle; layer beneath fascia
Perimysium CT that surrounds fasicle
Endomysium CT that surrounds muscle fibers; reticular fibers
Myofibrils Inside fibers; form during embryogenesis; 100's-1000's nuclei; composed of sarcomeres
Sarcomere Extends from Z disc to Z disc in a myofibril
Sarcolemma Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber;
Sarcoplasm Cytoplasm without the myofibrils
Myofilaments Actin and Myosin
Troponin Attached along actin and has Ca++ binding cite; pulls Tropomyosin away from active cites on actin when Ca++ attaches to it
Tropomyosin Covers active cites on actin; pulled away by troponin when Ca++ attaches to troponin
ATPase Promotes breakdown of ATP; enables myosin to use ATP energy to bend head in contraction
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum SR of myofibril; stores Ca++
A Band Extends from end to end of a myosin filament; does not shorten in contraction
H Zone Shortens in contraction; area between myosin filaments
I Band Overlaps Z disc and 2 connecting sarcomeres; shortens in contraction
Z Disc Filamentous network of protein forming disc-like structures for the attachment of actin myofilaments
Chemically Gated Channel A channel that can only be opened by means of a chemical (aceyltocholine)
Voltage Gated Channel A channel that can only be opened by high (+) of Na
Action Potential When voltage gated channel is opened, another opens after and so on; occurs rapidly over the entire phospholipid bilayer (includes T-tubules) When T-tubules depolarize, they interact with the SR to release Ca++
Temporal Summation Repeated stimulation in a short time period; single neuron stimulating 1 myofibril; includes partial relaxation phase
Spatial Summation Multiple neurons stimulating 1 myofibril
Incomplete Tetanus Increased frequency of spatial summations; shorter relaxation phase
Complete Tetanus No relaxation phase; as much tension as can be exerted; muscle length affects max tension
Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber Relatively less myoglobin and mitochondria than slow twitch; quickly uses ATP; fatigues quickly; large fibers
Slow Twitch Muscle Fiber More myoglobin and mitochondria; keeps going through aerobic resp; endurance; smaller fibers



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