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A&P: integument

Review of integumentary system

Keratinocytes majority puoduce keratin (fibrous protien), joined by desmosomes, stratum basale, live 25-45 days
Melanocytes make melanin, stratum basale, melanin granules eventually sent to keratinocytes
Merkel cells occasional, associated w/ sensory nerve endings for touch
Langerhans' cells macrophages, stratum spinosum
Stratum corneum cornified layer, composed of flattened thick keratinized cells that protect against abrasion/penetration but constantly exfoliate, dead cells
Stratum spinosum Spiny layer, containing many keratin fibers and desmosomes, resists tension
Stratum basale constant mitosis replaces epidermis from basal layer
Stratum granulosum keratin forming granules, lamellated granules, cells beginning to flatten and membrane thickens
What is thick skin? skin of palms, soles, and fingertips. Has an extra layer under corneum: stratum lucidum
What are the layers of the epidermis (superficial to deep, thin skin) stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
Apoptosis normally cells of trans/intermed. layers of epidermis go through this, resulting in protective layer of flattened dead cells of cornified layer
Squamous cell carcinoma cancer occuring in keratinocytes of intermediate or transitional layers of the epidermis
Basal cell carcinoma abnormal growth of basal cells
Melanoma cancer of melanocytes and is most dangerous bc often metastizes to other tissues/organs
Dermis type of tissue dense connective tissue
Dermis common cells fibroblasts, macrophages, some mast cells and WBC
Dermis semi fluid matrix collagen, elastin, reticular fibers
Dermis layers 2 layers: Papillary (areolar connective tissue) and Reticular layer (dense, irregular conn tissue)
Papillary layer thin, dermal papillae(upper edges) , dermal ridges (form fingerprints)
Reticular layer cleavage lines (affect incision gapes), flexure lines (folds around joints)
Eccrine glands most common, important for thermoregulation, acidic, sweat mostly water
Apocrine glands dont secrete anything till puberty, sweat, fat , and protiens, pheromones
Ceruminous glands modified apocrine gland, earwax
Mammary gland specialized sweat gland, secretes milk
Sebaceous glands secretes sebum, softens and lubricates hair and skin, simple holocrine gland
Things involved in touch feeling in skin merkel cells, root hair plexus, meissners corpuscle, pacinian corpuscles, free nerve endings
arrector pili function raises skin in goosbumps to produce insulating layer of air
Hair follicle layers from middle to outside medulla, cortex, sheath. hair papilla protrudes up into hair root, then matrix (for growth) on top of that
Nails composed of hard keratin, growth similar to hair
Created by: hanalin2