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respiratory system

Carbon dioxide tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during the metabolic process
Cartilage tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone
Cilia any hairlike structure
Diffuse moving or spreading out of a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces
Mucous membrane moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment, also called mucosa
Oxygen tastless, colorless, odorless gas essential for human respiration
Septum wall dividing two cavities, such as the nasal septum, which separates the two nostrils
Serous membrane thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities, the cells of which secrete a fluid that keeps the membrane moist, also called serosa
Nas/o nose
Rhin/o nose
Sept/o septum
Sinus/o sinus, cavity
Adenoid/o adenoids
Tonsil/o tonsils
Epiglott/o epiglottis
Laryng/o larynx (voice box)
Trache/o trachea (windpipe)
Bronchi/o bronchus (bronchi)
Bronch/o bronchus, bronchi
Bronchiol/o bronchiole
Alveol/o alveolus, air sac
Pleur/o pleura
Pneum/o air, lung
Pneumon/o air, lung
Pulmon/o lung
Anthrac/o coal, coal dust
Atel/o incomplete, imperfect
Coni/o dust
Cyan/o blue
Lob/o lobe
Orth/o straight
Ox/I oxygen
Ox/o oxygen
Pector/o chest
Steth/o chest
Thorac/o chest
Phren/o diaphragm, mind
Spir/o breathe
Capnia carbon dioxide
Osmia smell
Phonia voice
Pnea breathing
Ptysis spitting
Thorax chest
Brady slow
Dys bad, painful, difficult
Eu good, normal
Tachy rapid
Acidosis excessive acidity of body fluids
Anosmia absence of the sense of smell
Apnea temporary loss of breathing,
Sleep apnea sleeping disorder in which breathing stops repeatedly for more than 10 seconds, causing measurable blood deoxygenation
Obstructive apnea caused by englarged tonsils and adenoids
Central apnea caused by failure of the brain to transmit impulses for breathing
Mixed apnea combination of obstructive and central
Asphyxia condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
Atelectasis collapsed or airless state o the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung – surgical complication, in fetal atelectasis the lungs fail to expand normally at birth
cheyne-Stokes respiration repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all. (heart failure, brain damage)
compliance ease with which lung tissue can be stretched
coryza head cold, upper resp. infection (URI)
crackle abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli, aka rale
croup common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages, and sometimes lungs.
Deviated nasal septum displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils
Epiglottitis severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age.
Epistaxis nosebleed, nasal hemorrhage
Finger clubbing enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease
Hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in the blood
Hypoxia deficiency of oxygen in tissues
Pertussis acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a “whoop” sound, also called whooping cough
Pleurisy inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing, also called pleuritis
Pneumoconiosis disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust (anthracosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron dust (siderosis) and asbestos particles (asbestosis)
Pulmonary edema accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure
Pulmonary embolus blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, tissue, air bubbles, and bacteria)
Rhonchus abnormal breath sounds heard on auscultation
Stridor high-pitched, harsh, advenatitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months of age, also called crib death
Wheeze whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway
Mantoux test intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen (doesn’t differentiate between active and inactive infection)
Oximetry noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of Hb saturated with oxygen, also called pulse oximetry
Polysomnography test of sleep cycles and stages using EEGs, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, resp. rate, BP, Blood ox.sat, heart rhythm and sometimes direct observation using a video camera
Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane
Spirometry measurement of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air
Bronchoscopy visual exam of the bronchi using an endoscope – attachments can be used to suction mucus, remove foreign bodies, collect sputum, or perform biopsy
Laryngoscopy visual exam of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury or other abnormalities
Mediastinoscopy visual exam of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus and lymph nodes
Arterial blood gas (ABG) test that measures partial pressure of Oxygen, CO, pH and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample
Sputum culture microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonias
Sweat test measurement of the amount of salt in sweat (used in kids to confirm CF)
Throat culture test used to identify pathogens, especially group A strep
Lung scan nuclear scanning test primarily used to detect pulmonary emboli
Aerosol therapy lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways. Techniques include nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs)
Lavage irrigating or washing out of an organ, stomach, bladder, bowel or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid
Antral lavage irrigation of the antrum (maxillary sinus) in chronic or nonresponsive sinusitis.
Postural drainage positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of lungs
Pleurectomy excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal
Pneumectomy excision of a lung (removal of lobe is lobectomy)
Rhinoplasty reconstructive surgery of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic purposes
Septoplasty surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures
Thoracentesis surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity; also called pleurocentesis or thoracocentesis
Tracheostomy surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted
AFB acid-fast bacillus
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
CXR chest x-ray
DPI dry powder inhaler
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus
FVC forced vital capacity
HMD hyaline membrane disease
IPPD intermittent positive-pressure breathing
IRDS infant respiratory distress syndrome
MDI metered dose inhaler
NMT nebulized mist treatment
PA posteroanterior, pernicious anemia
PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, primary care physician, phencyclidine (hallucinogen)
PFT pulmonary function test
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
RD respiratory distress
RDS respiratory distress syndrome
SOB shortness of breath
T tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TB tuberculosis
TPR temperature, pulse and respiration
URI upper respiratory infection
VC vital capacity
Created by: lisaseib