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Chapter 21

Human Development and Genetics

QuestionAnswer
How many chromosomes does the human female egg have? 23
How many chromosomes does the human male sperm have? 23
The union of a human egg and sperm form a? Zygote
How many chromosomes does the human zygote have? 46
The human _________ contains 46 chromosomes. Zygote
The zygote is formed by the union of? Egg and sperm
Where does fertilization of the ovum take place? In the fallopian tube
Fertilization of the ________ takes place in the fallopian tube. Ovum
When a zygote undergoes cleavage, the process of cell division is called? Mitosis
The zygote begins a series of cell divisions called? Cleavage
Mitosis is the process of? Cell division
The early embryonic stage is called the? Morula
The morula is a solid sphere of? Cells
The early embryonic stage that is a solid sphere of cells is the? Morula
The morula stage of early embryonic development may be described as? Solid sphere of cells
The early embryonic stage that is a hollow sphere of cells with an inner cell mast is the? Blastocyst
The cells of the blastocyst are called? Stem cells
The are called stem cells because they are not yet? Specialized
What part of the blastocyst secretes enzymes to permit implantation? The trophoblast
The trophoblast is the part of the blastocyst that secretes enzymes to? Permit implantation
The trophoblast secretes enzymes to permit implantation in the? Uterus
Where does normal implantation of a blastocyst take place? Endometrium of the uterus
The endometrium of the uterus is where implantation of a __________ takes place. Blastocyst
The average human gestation period is? 40 weeks
During an average gestation period, the period of embryonic growth lasts? 8 weeks
During an average gestation period, the period of fetal growth lasts? 32 weeks
During gestation, the first 8 weeks are considered the _________ growth period. Embryonic
During gestation, the last 32 weeks are considerd the _________ growth period. Fetal
In the embryo, how many germ or primary layers are there? Three
The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm are the __________ of the embryo. Primary or germ layers
In the embryo, the epidermis and nervous system are derived from the? Ectoderm
In the embryo, the bones and muscles are derived from the? Mesoderm
In the embryo, the liver and lungs are derived from the? Endoderm
The embryonic membrane that forms the fetal part of the placenta is the? Chorion
The embryonic membrane that has villi to provide for nourishment of the early embryo is? Chorion
The embryonic membrane that forms the first blood cells is the? Yolk sac
The yolc sac is the embryonic membrane that forms the? First blood cell
The embryonic membrane that contains fluid to cushion the embryo is the? Amnion
Amnion is the embryonic membrane that contains fluid to cushion the? Embryo
Where is the site of exchanges between maternal blood and fetal blood? The placenta
The placenta is the site of exhange between maternal blood and? Fetal blood
The umbilical arteries carry blood from the? Fetus
The umbilical arteries carry blood from the fetus to the? Placenta
The ____________ carry blood from the fetus to the placenta. Umbilical ateries
The umbilical vein carries blood from the? Placenta
The umbilical vein carries blood to the? Fetus
The __________ carries blood from the placenta to the fetus. Umbilical vein
Blood is carried from the fetus to the placenta by the? Umbilical arteries
The umbilical arteries contain blood with high levels of the gas? Carbon dioxide
Blood is carried from the placenta to the fetus by the? Umbilical vein
The umbilical vein contain blood with high level of the gas? Oxygen
In the placenta, oxygen and carbon dioxide move by with the process of? Diffusion.
In the placenta, nutrients are taken into fetal vessels by the process of? Active transport
The placental hormone that maintains the corpus luteum during early pregnancy is? hCG
The placental hormone hCG maintains the ________ during early pregnancy. Corpus luteum
Where is the hormone hCG produced? The choroin of the embryo
The placental hormone hCG is produced in the chorion of the? Embryo
In later pregnancy, what hormones does the placenta secrete? Estrogen and progesterone
During pregnancy, what placental hormone inhibits contractions of the myometrium? Progesterone
The placental hormone progesterone inhibits contractions of the? Myometrium
During pregnancy, what placental hormones inhibit ovulation? Estrogen and progesterone
During pregnancy, the placental hormones estrogen and progesteron inhibit? Ovulation
During pregnancy, the hormones that prepare the mammary glands for lactation are? Estrogen and progesterone
During what stage of labor is the placenta delivered? The third stage
During what stage of labor is the baby delivered? The second stage
During what stage of labor does the cervix dilate? The first stage
During the third stage of labor, the ________ is delivered. Placenta
During the seckond stage of labor, the _______ is delivered. Baby
During the first stage of labor, the ________ dilates. Cervix
When does the amniotic sac rupture? During the first stage of labor
During the first stage of labor the _________ ruptures. Amniotic sac
When do the cervix dilate? During the first stage of labor
The ________ dilate during the first stage of labor. Cervix
The cervix dilate and the amniotic sac ruptures during the? First stage of labor
During labor, the hormone that causes strong contractions of the uterus is? Oxytocin
Oxytocin is the hormone that causes strong contractions of the ________ during labor. Uterus
Just before birth, all of the fetus,s organ systems are functioning except the? Respiratory system
When does the respiratory system of a fetus start functioning? A few moments after birth
After birth the babys respiratory system begins funtioning because? The lungs have been inflated.
After birth, the foramen ovale in the babys ________ is closed. Heart
After birth, the ___________ in the babys heart is closed. Foramen ovale
When the foramen ovale closes in the babys heart, this ________ pulmonary circulation. Increases
After birth,the babys ductus arteriosus? Constricts
After birth, the babys ductus arteriosus constricts, which allows more? Blood flow to the lungs
After birth, the babys ductus venosus? Constricts
After birth, the babys ductus venosus constricts because? The umbilical cord has been cut
When the umbilical cord is cut blood no longer enters the? Umbilical vein
A gene is a genetic code for? One protein
The genetic code for one protein is called? One gene
Where is the genetic code in the nucleus of a cell contained? In the DNA of the chromosome
A person has ____ genes for each genetic traight. 2
A person has two genes for each genetic trait, and the genes are called? Maternal and paternal
A human cell contains _____ chromosomes. 46
A human cell contains 46 chromosomes and 22 pairs of these are? Autosomes
A human cell contains 22 autosomes and 1 pair is called? Sex chromosomes
The sex chromosome in women are called? XX
XX is the sex chromome in? Women
The sex chromosome in men are called? XY
XY is the sex chromosome in? Men
Homologous chromosomes are a pair of chromosomes that may aslo be called? Maternal and paternal
A pair of chromosomes that has maternal and paternal genes for the same traits is a? Homologous pair
The two members of a homologous pair of chromosomes have genes for? The same traits
The possibilities for the expression of a gene are called? alleles
A person who is homozygous for a particular trait has two _________ genes for it. Similar
A person who is heterozygous for a particular trait has two ________ genes for it. Different
A person who has two similar genes for a particular trait is ______ for the trait. Homozygous
A person who has two different genes for a particular trait is _______ for the trait. Heterozygous
The genes a person has for a particular trait are called the? Genotype
The expression of genes a person has for a particular trait is called the? Penotype
A persons genotype for a particular trait refers to the? Genes that are present
A persons phenotype for a particular trait refers to the? Expression of the genes
If a trait may appear in a persons phenotype when only one gene is present for it, the trait is called? Dominant
If a trait may appear in a persons phenotype only when two genes are present for it, the trait is called? Recessive
In order for a recessive trait to appear in a persons phenotype the person must? Have two genes for it
In order for a dominant trait to appear in a perons phenotype the person must? Have one gene for it
A trait that is ________ requires two genes for it's expression. Recessive
A trait that is ________ requires only one gene for it's expression. Dominant
For the ABO blood types in people, the O allele is? Recessive
For the ABO blood types in people, the A,B alleles are? Co-dominant
For the ABO blood types in people, the ____ allele is recessive. O
For the ABO blood types in people, the ____ alleles are co-dominant. A,B
The genes for sex-linked traits are found on the ____ chromosome. X
When the gene for a trait is found only on the X chromosome, the trait said to be? Sex linked; X linked
Sex-linked traits are considered? Recessive
Sex-linked traits are considered recessive because women must? Have two genes to express such traits
Created by: laceychapman