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Anatomy Beginning

The beginning of gross human anatomy and physiology class

Anatomy The science concerned with the physical structure of the organism
Histology The study of normal tissues
Pathology The study of the disease states and abnormal tissues
Levels of Organization Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
Cellular Level The basic structural and functional component of life
Tissue Level Aggregation of similar cells that perform a common function
Organ Level Aggregation of tissue types that perform a specific function
Organ System Level Consists of various organs that have similar or related functions
Epithelial Tissue Covers the body surfaces, lines the body cavities, forms glands and ducts
Connective Tissue Bind, Support, and Protect body parts
Muscle Tissue Contracts to produce movement
Nervous Tissue Initiates and transmits electrical impulses from one body part to another
Organ Systems of the Body Circulatory, Endocrine, Immune, Integumentary, Musculoskeletal, Nervous, Respiratory, Digesive, Urinary, Reproductive
Anatomical Position body is erect, feet are parralel, eyes directed forward, arms to the side, palms directed forward, fingers strait down
Superior Toward the head
Inferior Away from the head
Anterior Toward the front
Posterior Toward the back
Ventral Toward the front
Dorsal Toward the back
Medial Toward the midline of the body
Lateral Away from the midline of the body
Proximal Toward the trunk of the body
Distal Away from the trunk of the body
Ipsilateral On the same side
Contralateral On the opposite side
Rostral(neuro) Towards the forehead
Caudal(neuro) Towards the spinal cord
Flexion Movement that decreases the angle of the parts of a joint
Extension Movement that increases the angle of the parts of a joint
Adduction Movement towards the midline of the body
Abduction Movement away from the midline of the body
Inversion (feet) A turning inward
Eversion(feet) A turning outward
Dorsiflextion The superior surface approaches the shin
Plantarflexion Depressing the foot or pointing the toes
Supination Placement of a body part so that the anterior surface is superior
Pronation Placement of a body part so that the posterior surface is superior
Circumduction The distal end of the body part describes a circle, but the bone does not rotate
Retraction A body part that moves pesteriorily in a horisontal plane
Elevation Moves the body part superiorily
Depression Moves the body part inferiorily
Lateral flexion Moves the vertebral column in a lateral direction
Cephalic region Head
Cervical region Neck
Thoracic region Chest
Brachium region The arm from the shoulder to the elbow
Antibrachium region The forearm
Antecubital region The front of the elbow
Carpus region Wrist
Pubis region The anterior pelvis
Inguinal region The groin
Lumbar region Lower back
Gluteus region Buttocks
Femoral region Thigh
Patellar region Kneecap
Crus Calf
Talus The ankle
Plantar The sole of the foot
Quadrant System Division of the abdomen into four quadrants clincally marked by a mid-sagittal plane and transverse plane through the unbillicus.
Left/Right Hypochondriac regions Left and right upper 1/3 regions of the abdomen
Left/Right Lumbar regions Left and right middle lateral regions of the abdomen
Left/Right Inguinal regions Left and right lower 1/3 regions of the abdomen
Epigastric region Upper, central 1/3 of the abdomen
Unbillical region Center of the abdomen
Hypogastric region Lower, central 1/3 of the abdomen
Sagittal plane A vertical plane that divides the body into left and right portions
Mid-Saggital plane A vertical plane that equally divides the body into right and left portions
Transverse plane Divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal plane A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
Dorsal Body Cavity Divided into the Cranial and Vertebral Cavities
Cranial Cavity Contains the brain
Vertebral Cavity Contains the spinal cord
Ventral Body Cavity Divided by the diaphragm into the Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Cavities
Thoracic Body Cavity Divided into the Pleural, Mediastinum, and Pericardial Cavities
Pleural Cavities The cavites that surround the right and left lungs
Mediastinum Cavity The area between the two lungs
Pericardial Cavity The cavity that surrounds the heart
Abdominopelvic Cavity Divided into the Abdominal and Pelvic Cavity
Abdominal Cavity The upper region of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the stomach, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys
Mesentary the membrane, consisting of a double layer of peritoneum, that connect the parietal peritoneum with the visceral peritoneum. Supports the intestines, maintaining them in position in the abdominal cavity
Synovial Membranes a thin membrane composed entirely of connective tissue in synovial (freely moving) joints that lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid
Cutaneous Membrane The skin that covers the body
Tight Junctions the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtual impermeable barrier to fluid
Desmosomes are anchoring junctions or mechanical couplings like rivets scattered along the sides of adjacent cells found in tissues under mechanical stress like the heart, skin, and uterus
Gap Junctions a linkage of two adjacent cells consisting of a system of channels extending across a gap from one cell to the other, allowing the passage of ions and small molecules. exist in electrically excitable tissues like the heart.
Hypo- Below; beneath; under
Epi- On; upon
Gastro- Belly or stomach, having to do with the digestive system
Osteo- Having to do with bones
Chondro- Having to with cartilage
Hyper- Over, Above, or Excessive
Peri- About or Around
Histology the branch of biology dealing with the study of tissues
Pathology the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases
Matrix the intercellular substance of a tissue
Created by: garciarussell