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Chapter 24

Chapter 24-Industry, Empire, and Everyday Life, 1870-1890

Glossary TermsDefinitions
Second Industrial Revolution (1871-1914) continuation of the Industrial Revolution, led to further mechanization of manufacturing in Europe and North America
New Imperialism The colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I
Scramble for Africa The proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and the start of World War I
Social Darwinism The application of Darwinism to the study of human society, specifically a theory in sociology that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority
Emile Zola Was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France
Georges Seurat A French painter and the founder of Neoimpressionism. His large work Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte is one of the icons of 19th century painting
Claude Monet French Impressionist painter. The term Impressionism is derived from the title of his painting Impression, Sunrise
Vincent Van Gough Dutch draughtsman and painter, classified as a Post-Impressionist. His paintings and drawings include some of the world's best known, most popular and most expensive pieces. He suffered from recurrent bouts of mental illness
William Gladstone British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). He was a notable political reformer, known for his populist speeches, and was for many years the main political rival of Benjamin Disraeli
Ballot Act of 1872 Required that British general elections to Parliament and local government election use the secret ballot
Reform Act of 1884 A response to the inequality in the electoral system left by Benjamin Disraeli's Reform Act 1867
Third Republic Was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime
Three Emperor’s League Alliance in 1873 among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
Kulturkampf Refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by Otto von Bismarck
Pope Leo XIII Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903
Dual Alliance Was created as a defensive treaty for Germany and Austria-Hungary to counter Russian aggression
Triple Alliance The treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy pledged on 20 May 1882 to support each others militarily in the event of an attack against any of them by two or more great powers
Leo Tolstoy Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of the Tolstoy family
Fyodor Dostoevsky Considered one of the greatest Russian writers. His works have had a profound and lasting effect on twentieth-century literature, his novels often feature characters living in poor conditions with disparate and extreme states of mind.
Assassination of Alexander II,1881 Killed in 1881 by the People’s Will terrorist group because of his policies
Pale of Settlement Was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with central Europe
Kaiser William II The last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling both the German Empire and Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918
Impressionism A 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, the name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise. Characteristics include visible brushstrokes and light colours
New unionism In Britain in the 1880s unions began to change and allow for wider and easier membership resulting in a wider spread of unions
Second International, 1889 A transnational organization of workers established in 1889, mostly committed to Marxian socialism
Karl Benz German engine designer and automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile, credited with building the first commercial automobile
Sergei Witte Highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He was also the author of the October Manifesto of 1905, a precursor to Russia's first constitution
Economic crisis of 1873 A time of prosperity during and after the Franco Prussian war gave way to nearly three decades of economic fluctuations following 1873
1882 British invasion of Egypt After investing in the Suez Canal in the 1860s and taking over the Egyptian treasury in 1879 the British needed more insurance of Egyptian cooperation and completely occupied the country in 1882.
Belgium Congo A territory of Africa colonized by the Belgians that suffered greatly due to Leopold II’s greed and cruelty
Cecil Rhodes British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, which today controls 60% of the world's diamonds and at one time controlled 90% of the world's diamonds. Colonized Rhodesia
Indian National Congress, 1885 Founded in 1885 by the educated Indian elite in the hope for more representation and equality in the British dominated government
Fabian Society British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary, means
Charles Parnell Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom
Indochina Greatly colonized and supported by France in the late 1800s with the addition of Cambodia, Tonkin, Annam, and Cochin China
Boers Descendants of Dutch farmers in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State
Jingoism Political sloganeering, a chauvinistic patriotism. In practice, it refers to sections of the general public who advocate bullying other countries or using any means necessary to safeguard a country's national interests
Created by: alfromcanada