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U2: Lower Limb

Bones of lower limb femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Femur (thigh bone) only bone in thigh (not in anatomical leg); largest, longest, heaviest, strongest bone in the body. Has head, neck, greater and lesser trochanters, gluteal tuberosity, medial and lateral epicondyles.
Head of femur located on proximal end; articulates with acetabeulum of hip bone to form essence of hip joint.
Neck of femur relatively narrow extension on which the head is located; weakest part of femur and is what breaks in a “broken hip;” especially susceptible to growing weaker in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Greater and Lesser Trochanters of Femur projections on proximal femur to which muscles attach
Gluteal tuberosity of femur projection on posterior aspect of femur’s shaft where the gluteus maximus and muscle attaches.
Medial and lateral condyles of femur wheel shaped projections on distal femur that articulate with the relatively flat medial and lateral condyles on the proximal tibia.
Medial and lateral epicondyles bumps on distal femur to which the medial and lateral collateral ligaments attach.
Patella (kneecap) bone located anteriorly to distal femur and proximal tibia; is enclosed in the quadriceps femoris tendon.
Tibia (shinbone) medial, larger of 2 bones in anatomical leg;proximal end articulates w/ condyles on distal femur to form knee joint;distal end articulates w/ talus to form ankle joint. Medial & lateral condyles, tibial tuberosity, anterior/tibial crest, medial malleolus
Medial and lateral condyles of tibia relatively flat parts on proximal tibia that articulate with the wheel-shaped condyles on the distal femur to help form the knee joint.
Tibial tuberosity located on the anterior surface of the tibia , slightly distal to its condyles; this tuberosity serves as an attachment site for the patellar ligament
Anterior/tibial crest sharp ridge on front of tibia that can be easily palpated (felt through skin); the tibialis anterior muscle is located immediately lateral to it
Medial malleolus bump on distal tibia that forms the inner (medial) bulge of the ankle
Fibula thinner more lateral of two leg bones; straight, thin, stick-like shape; does not bear weight; does not really contribute to formation of the knee joint; articulates distally with the talus; provides stability to the ankle joint. Has lateral malleolus.
Lateral malleolus of fibula distal end of fibula; forms outer (lateral) bulge of ankle.
Tarsals seven bones in each foot that form the tarsus (anatomical ankle). Has talus, calcaneus.
Talus specific tarsal bone with which the distal ends of both the tibia and fibula articulate to form the ankle joint; lies between the distal tibia and calcaneus
Calcaneus heel bone. Specific tarsal bone that forms heel and to which the Achilles/calcaneal tendon of the calf muscles attach; largest of tarsal bones
Metatarsals five bones in each foot that form the instep
Phelanges of foot 14 bones in the five toes of each foot; three in each toe except big toe which only has two. Anatomical name for big toe = hallux. Bunion is deformation of hallux due to poor fitting shoes.
Arches of the feet provide foot with certain amt. of springiness (resilience); maintained by interlocking shapes of foot bones, ligaments that bind bones of the feet, and the tendons of muscles that attach to those bones
Created by: mbtrimm



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