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U2: Vertebral/Spine


Vertebral Column/Spinal Column/Spine 26 irregular shaped bones (vertebrae) joined & supported by ligaments and trunk muscles such that a flexible, curved structure results.
Major supporting ligaments of vertebral column/spinal column/spine anterior & posterior longitudinal ligaments that run vertically along the anterior and posterior surfaces of the vertebral column.
26 bones in vertebral column 7 cervical vertebrae + 12 thoracic vertebrae + 5 lumbar vertebrae + 1 sacrum (consists of fused vertebrae) + 1 coccyx (usually four fused vertebrae) = 26 bones
intevertabral discs separate vertebrae; cushion vertebrae by absorbing jolts; consists of outer fibrocartilage layer (anulus fibrosus) and an inner gelatinous core (nucleus pulposis). tend to lose water and the ligaments around them weaken = herniated discs
Abnormal spinal curvatures can be congenital or a result of disease, poor posture, or unequal pull of skeletal muscles on the spine. Types are scoliosis, kyphosis/hunchback, lordosis/swayback.
Scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the thoracic vertebrae
Kyphosis/hunchback exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic vertebrae; common in elderly women because of vertebrae fractures that occur in association with osteoporosis; sometimes called dowagers hump.
Lordosis/swayback exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar vertebrae; common in obese men and pregnant women.
Structure of typical vertebrae body/centrum, vertebral arch, vertebral foramen, spinous process, transverse processes
Body/centrum anterior, disc-shaped, weight bearing portion of vertebra
Vertebral arch posterior arch-shaped part of vertebra; laminae (sing. Lamina) are posterior portions of vertebral arch; spina bifida is failure of some laminae to completely fuse during fetal development, resulting in incompletely formed vertebral arches. Laminectomy
Vertebral foramen opening between the body/centrum and vertebral arch; all the vertebral foramina combine to form the vertebral canal through which the spinal cord passes.
Processes that extend from the vertebral arch spinous process, transverse process
Spinous process single projection that extends posterioraly from the vertebral arch; the laminae lie at its base
Transverse process two projections that extend laterally from the vertebral arch
Intervertebral foramina holes between adjacent vertebrae through which spinal nerves pass.
Types of vertebrae cervical vertebrae, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx.
Cervical vertebrae 7 of them; located in cervical region; are relatively small; transverse processes have transverse foramina through which the vertebral arteries course in route to the brain.
Atlas 1st vertebrae; articulates with occipital condyles to form a hinge type joint that allows flexion and extension of head to nod yes
Axis 2nd vertebrae; has dens/odontoid process that articulate with the atlas to form the atlanto-axial joint which is a pivot type joint that allows rotation of head from side to side as in indicating “no”
Vertebra prominens 7th cervical vertebra; derives from the fact that its relatively large spinous process can be readily seen and/or felt through the skin at the base of the posterior neck.
Thoracic vertebrae 12 of them; larger than cervical vertebrae, but smaller than lumbar. Articulate with posterior end of ribs.
Lumbar vertebrae 5 of them; have very thick bodies making them the sturdiest of the vertebrae which is expected since they do most of the weight supporting of the vertebral column.
Sacrum triangular shaped bone that consists of five fused vertebrae; articulates laterally with the ilium of each hip bone to form the sacroiliac joints; the sacral promontory on the anterior, superior margin of the sacrum can hinder delivery.
Coccyx consists on average of four fused vertebrae; commonly called the tailbone. Can hinder delivery.
Herniated/slipped/ruptured disc intervertebral discs lose water w/ age so surrounding ligaments weaken; can cause disc to protrude posterolaterally from normal position & may press on spinal nerve roots extending from spinal cord, resulting in extreme pain and/or numbness
Created by: mbtrimm