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U2: Skull/Cranial

Skull/Cranial Bones

Skull cranial bones (which enclose and protect brain) + facial bones (are responsible for the overall shape of the face). All of the bones of the skull are immovable bones joined by immovable type joints called sutures, except the mandible, the only movable bo
cranial bones 2 parietal bones + 2 temporal bones + 1 frontal bone + 1 occipital bone + 1 sphenoid bone + 1 ethmoid bone
Frontal bone forms forehead; contains frontal sinuses which are “paranasal” sinuses; supraorbital margin of frontal bone = ridge at superior aspect of eye socket (orbit)
Parietal bones form most of the superior and lateral walls of the skull; the two bones meet one another at the sagittal suture and meet the frontal bone at the coronal suture.
Temporal bones form inferolateral walls of cranium; meet the parietal bones at the squamous suture. Specific parts external acoustic meatus; mandibular fossa; mastoid process; zygomatic process; carotid canal.
External acoustic meatus specific part of the temporal bones; canal that leads to the eardrum and middle ear
Mandibular fossa specific part of the temporal bones; articulates with the mandibular condyle of the mandible to form the temporomandibular joint (tmj); the only freely moving joint in the skull.
Mastoid process projection posterior & inferior to external acoustic meatus; point of attachment for some neck muscles, ex. sternocleidomastoid muscle; filled with mastoid sinuses that are susceptible to infection (mastoiditis) via bacteria from the nearby middle ear
Zygomatic process barlike extension that projects anteriorly the meet the zygomatic bone
Zygomatic arch zygomatic process of temporal bone + zygomatic bone.
Carotid canal opening in inferior part of temporal bone that allows passage of the internal carotid artery to the brain.
Occipital bone forms posterior part of the skull and most of its base; meets parietal bone at the lamdoid suture; specific parts are foramen magnum and occipital condyles
Foramen magnum large opening in the base of the occipital bone where lowest part of the brain (medulla oblongata) meets the spinal cord
Occipital condyles smallish wheel0shaped projections that articulate with (form a joint with) the 1st cervical vertebra/atlas; this joint allows for rocking (flexion and extension) of the head as in when one indicates yes
Sphenoid bone forms part of the eye (eye socket); some of the floor of the skull and a little of the lateral portion of the skull. Specific parts are sphenoid sinuses and sella turcica/hypophyseal fossa
Sphenoid sinuses specific part of sphenoid bone; are paranasal sinuses
Sella turica/hypohyseal fossa small depression on superior aspect of sphenoid bone in which the pituitary gland is located.
Ethmoid bone forms the roof of the nasal cavity and a portion of its lateral walls; forms part of nasal septum. Specific parts
Ethmoid sinuses paranasal sinuses; specific part of ethmoid bone
Cribriform plates form roof of nasal cavity; specific part of ethmoid bone
Olfactory foramina tiny holes in cribriform plate that allow passage of olfactory nerve fibers that convey impulses for the sense of smell from the top of the nasal cavity toward the brain; specific part of ethmoid bone.
Perpendicular plate partition of bone that forms the superior part of the nasal septum (nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves); specific part of ethmoid bone
Superior and middle conchae/turbinates project from the lateral walls of nasal cavity; specific part of ethmoid bone
Maxilla (maxillary bone) forms the upper jaw and most of the hard palate. Specific parts
Alveolar margin specific part of maxilla; ridge which bears the upper teeth; all the alveoli (sockets) of the upper teeth are in this margin.
Palatine processes form the anterior part and most (about ¾) of the hard palate; specific part of maxilla
Palatine bones form the posterior part (small portion) of the hard palate
Cleft palate is caused by when the palatine bones and/or palatine processes of the maxilla fail to fuse medially during fetal development. This defect leaves an opening between the oral and nasal cavities and interferes with the baby’s ability to nurse.
Zygomatic bones called the cheekbones since they form the prominences of the cheeks; join with the temporal bones zygomatic processes to form the zygomatic arch.
Lacrimal bones fingernail-size bones that form a small part of the medial wall of each orbit (eye socket); each has a groove that provides for passage of tears from the orbit to the nasal cavity.
Nasal bones two small bones that form the bridge of the nose. Most of the external nose is made of pieces of hyaline cartilage)
Vomer bone forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum
Inferior turbinates/conchae project from the inferior aspect of lateral walls of nasal cavity.
Mandible lower jawbone; specific parts are mandibular condyle/head of mandible, alveolar margin, body, rami (or ramus), mandibular foramen
Mandibular condyle specific part of mandible; articulates with the mandibular fossa of temporal bone to form temporomandibular joint (tmj), the only freely moveable joint in the skull.
Alveolar margin ridge that bears the lower teeth; all of the sockets of the lower teeth are in this margin. Specific part of mandible.
Body horizontal portion of mandible that forms the inferior jaw line
Rami (singular ramus) vertical portion of mandible. Specific part of mandible.
Mandibular foramen opening on medial aspect of mandible that allows passage of the inferior alveolar nerve (a branch of the trigeminal nerve) to the lower teeth. Specific part of mandible.
Roof of nasal cavity formed by cribriform plates of ethmoid bone
Floor of nasal cavity formed by palatine processes of maxilla and palatine bones (these components form roof of mouth as hard palate)
Lateral walls of nasal cavity largely formed by nasal conchae/turbinates, which include the superior and middle conchae/turbinates of the ehtmoid bone and the independent inferior conchae/turbinates (conchae is plural, concha is singular)
Anterior wall of nasal cavity largely formed by pieces of cartilage that comprise the external nasal cartilage, with a small contribution provided by nasal bones in the bridge of the nose.
Structure of nasal septum vertical portion that divides nasal cavity into left and right halves
Superior part of nasal septum formed by perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
Inferior part of nasal septum formed by vomer bone
Anterior part of nasal septum formed by septal cartilage
Paransal sinuses aire filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity; are located in these bones
Orbits/eye sockets composed of parts of seven different bones; contain eyeballs, fat, lacrimal (tear) glands, and small skeletal muscles that move the eyes.
Hyoid bone not really part of skull; located n the anterior neck about 1” above larynx. Only bone in body that does not directly articulate with another bone. Serves as an attachment site for muscles associated with swallowing.
Fontanelles or fontanels soft spots in the fetal and infant skull that have yet to be converted to bone; advantages
Created by: mbtrimm



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