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Hazmat Definitions

HazMat Tech 1 Definitions

Any substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. pH less than 7 in its standard state. acid
Capable of burning, corroding, dissolving or eating away by chemical action. pH greater than 7 in its standard state. caustic
Materials that can react or ignite if they are exposed to air. air reactivity
A phenomenon that occurs during the rapid release (boiling) of a liquefied gas that causes it to temporarily remain in a liquid state through rapid cooling. auto-refrigeration
Producing disease through living microorganisms that can mutate and become toxins are more deadly. biological agents
Toxins can be small molecules, peptides or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues. RISK: Affects human health in a variety of ways ranging from allergic reactions to death. biological toxins
A chemical compound, including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues. blood agents
Temperature at which the transition from a liquid to a gas state occurs. The vapor pressure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly becomes a vapor. boiling point
A substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected. catalyst
Changes that take place on the molecular level, produces a new substance. chemical change
Caused when two or more chemicals, or the chemical and its container are incompatible. chemical interactions
Separate elements that bond together to form a ______ _______, they have a tendency to break down into their component parts, sometimes in an explosive manner. compound mixture
When dealing with corrosives, the amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present. concentration
The minimum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied. A gas cannot be liquefied above this. critical temperature
The pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to its liquid state. critical pressure
The separation of a substance into two or more simpler substances, or of a molecule into atoms or ions by the action of heat or a chemical process; usually reversible. dissociation
A measure of a substance's tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance or in a particular environment. corrosivity
The concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period. dose
The biological reaction caused by the dose in the body. The degree of harm is directly related to the dose (time and amount) and it's impact on bodily functions. dose response
The amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temperature. expansion ratio
The minimum temperature at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will not continue to burn. flash point
The temperature at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning. fire point
The difference between the upper and lower flammable limits. flammable (explosive) range
The minimum concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source. lower explosive limit (LEL); "too lean to burn"
The maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate. upper explosive limit (UEL); "too rich to burn"
The period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half. half-life
Often more toxic than naturally occurring organic chemicals. They decompose into smaller, more harmful elements when exposed to high temperatures for long periods of time. halogenated hydrocarbons
Added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. If it is not added or escapes during an incident, the material will begin to polymerize, which creates a very dangerous situation. inhibitor
The temperature at which a material will self-ignite and sustain combustion in air without an external spark or flame. ignition (auto-ignition) temperature
Materials that decompose spontaneously, polymerize or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable. instability
Materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons. ionic and covalent compounds
They cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitate a victim. irritants (riot control agents)
The maximum temperature that an organic peroxide may be stored safely. maximum safe storage temperature (MSST)
Temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid allowing it to spread more readily. melting point
Temperature at which a liquid converts to a solid. freezing point
Refers to the tendency or ability of two or more liquids to form a uniform blend, or to dissolve in each other. miscibility (1) miscibility is complete solubility (2) generally seen in liquids (3) water and (ethyl) alcohol are miscible, while oil and water are not
Substances that interfere with the central nervous system. nerve agents
Pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon. organic
Composed of matter that is not animal or vegetable; not having the organized structure of living things; lacks carbon chains. inorganic
The combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard. oxidation potential
Refers to a chemical's ability to remain in the environment. The more it is the greater the propensity for it to remain harmful over a period of time. persistence
The numerical measure of a solution's hydrogen ion concentration as related to acidity or alkalinity. pH
The process when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical properties. physical change
The characteristic form of a material at ambient temperature physical state
Any process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer. polymerization
Spontaneous emission of ionizing radiation as a consequence of a nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an unstable nucleus. radioactivity
Positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested. alpha
Can damage skin tissue and internal organs if they enter the body. Full protective clothing, including positive pressure SCBA, will protect against this type of radiation beta
Causes skin burns and can severely injure internal organs; therefore protective clothing is inadequate in preventing this radiation from harming the body. gamma
A substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change. For example: self-reaction, polymerization, or violent reaction. reactivity
Describes the sensitivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement. water reactivity
Chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing irritation to the eyes, mouth, throat, lungs and skin. riot control agents (ie: tear gas)
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. saturated hydrocarbons (also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons)
Materials that have at least one multiple bond between two carbon atoms somewhere in the molecule, which causes them to be more hazardous. unsaturated hydrocarbons (a) with at least one double bond called alkenes; those with at least one triple bond called alkynes
Materials that contain the benzene "ring", which is formed by six carbon atoms and contains double bonds; its greatest hazard is toxicity. aromatic hydrocarbons
When this temperature is reached by some portion of the mass of the organic peroxide, irreversible decomposition will begin. self-accelerating decomposition temperature (a) this reaction can be violent, usually rupturing the vessel or container dispersing peroxide, liquid and gaseous decomposition products considerable distances.
The ability of a substance to form a solution with water can be important when determining control methods. solubility (a) solubility can be measured 1. sugar is soluble in water to a certain amount
Mixture in which all of the ingredients are completely dissolved. solution
Pourable mixture of a solid and a liquid. slurry
The weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water. specific gravity
Concentration of a solution; in corrosives refers to the degree of ionization of an acid or a base in water. strength
The ability of a substance to change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase. sublimation
Influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product. temperature of a product
Byproducts of the combustion process that are harmful to humans. Some materials generate more highly toxic gases than others do; therefore, appropriate levels of protective clothing and equipment must be used to counter them. toxic products of combustion
Weight of a vapor compared to air. vapor density
The force exerted by the gas or vapor released by a liquid or solid substance in a closed container or space. vapor pressure
These agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appearing for minutes, hours or days. vesicants (blister agents)
Measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows. During an incident this will affect the flow away from a leaking container, expanding the endangered area. viscosity
Ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state. During an incident this will affect the dispersement in air and expand the endangered area. volatility
Measurements of radioactivity, the number of atoms in a given quantity of radioactive material that are detected to have decayed in one minute. counts per minute (cpm) and kilocounts per minute (kcpm)
The maximum level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairment. immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) value
The latency between exposure to a pathogen and onset of symptoms. incubation period
Amount of pathogen necessary to manifest it's pathogenicity. Dependent on pathogenic variables as well as host variables such as health, gender, predisposition and several others. infectious dose
Amount of a material in air that, on the basis of laboratory tests (inhalation route), is expected to kill 50 percent of a group of test animals when administered in a specific time period. lethal concentration (LC50)
Causes the death of 50 percent of a group of test animals exposed to it by any route other than inhalation. lethal dose (LD50)
The ratio of the amount of one substance to the amount of another, expressed as a unit of solute dissolved in one million units of solution. Denotes the number of units of one substance relative to one million units of another substance. parts per million (ppm)
Number of units of one substance relative to one billion units of another substance. parts per billion (ppb)
Regulatory limits on the amount or concentration of a substance in the air. The time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8hr workday and a 40hr workweek, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse affect. permissible exposure limit (PEL) (OSHA)
Equals the energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material (an erg is a unit of work energy). radiation absorbed dose (rad) Largely obsolete unit of absorbed radiation dose, equal to 1 centigray. Now superseded in the SI by the gray; 1 rad is equal to 10 milligray, 100 rads are equal to 1 Gy.
An international unit of the intensity of x-rays and gamma rays. The absorbed dose of ionizing radiation that produces the same biological effect as 1 rad of xrays or gamma rays (which are equal) Roentgen equivalent man (Rem); millirem (mrem) -Describes the biological damage done by the absorbed dose of radiation. Reflects both the dose rate and potential harm to the body, expressed in rems per hour or millirems per hour.
The maximum concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed without risk of injury, and the exposure to higher concentrations should not occur. threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C)
The maximum average concentration, averaged over a 15 minute period, to which healthy adults can be safely exposed for up to 15 minutes continuously. Exposure should not occur more than four times a day with at least one hour between exposures. threshold limit value short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL)
The maximum concentration, averaged over 8 hours, to which a healthy adult can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week. threshold limit value time weighted average (TLV-TWA)
Created by: 545987939
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