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Tech Definition Src

Definitions

QuestionAnswer
Any substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste with the ability to turn blue litmus red and has a pH less than 7 Acid
Capable of burning, corroding, dissolving or eating away by chemical action with pH greater than 7 Caustic
Materials that react or ignite if they are exposed to air Air reactivity
A phenomenon that occurs during the rapid release (boiling) of a liquefied gas that causes it to temporarily remain in a liquid state through rapid cooling auto refrigeration
a chemical compoound, including cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues blood agents
producing disease through living microorganisms that can mutate and become toxins are more deadly (pathogens) biological agents
toxins that can be small molecules, peptides or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues biological toxins
temperature at which the transition from a liquid to a gas state occurs; liquid quickly becomes a vapor boiling point
substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without being affected catalyst
change takes place on a molecular level and produces a new substance chemical change
caused when two or more chemicals or the chemical and its container are incompatible chemical interactions
separate elements that bond together to form compound mixture; have a tendency to break down into their parts, sometimes in an explosive manner compound mixture
the amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present concentration
minimum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied critical temperature
pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to its liquid state critical pressure
separation of a substance into 2 or more simpler substances by the action of heat or chemical process. Usually reversible dissociation
measure of a substance's tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance in a particular environment corrosivity
concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period dose
biological reaction caused by the dose in the body. degree of harm is directly related to dose & its impact on bodily functions dose response
the amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temperature expansion ratio
minimum temperature at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will not continue to burn flash point
temperature at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning fire point
difference between upper and lower flammable limits Flammable range (explosive)
minimum concentration below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source. Also known as "Too lean to burn" Lower explosive level (LEL)
The maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate. Also known as "Too rich to burn" Upper explosive level (UEL)
period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half half-life
more toxic than naturally occurring organic chemicals. decompose into smaller, harmful elements when exposed to high temps halogenated hydrocarbons
added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. If not added, the material will polymerize inhibitor
temperature at which a material (solid, liquid or gas) will self-ignite & sustain combustion in air without and external spark or flame ignition (auto) temperature
materials that decompose spontaneously, polymerize or otherwise self-react and are considered unstable instability
materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons ionic and covalent compounds
cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitate a victim irritants
maximum temperature that an organic peroxide may be stored safely Maximum Safe Storage Temperature (MSST)
temperature at which a liquid converts to a solid freezing point
temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid melting point
tendency or ability of two or more liquids to form a uniform blend or to dissolve in each other; complete solubility, generally seen in liquids, water & alcohol not oil & water miscibility
substances that interfere with the nervous system nerve agents
class of chemical compounds that formerly compromised of those existing in or derived from plants or animals and includes compounds of carbon organic
matter that is not animal or vegetable; lacks carbon chains inorganic
combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard oxidation potential
chemical's ability to remain in the environment. persistence
numerical measure of a solution hydrogen ion concentration as related to acidity or alkalinity pH
process when objects undergo change that does not change their chemical properties physical change
characteristic form of a material at ambient temperature physical state (solid, liquid, gas)
any process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer polymerization
spontaneous emission of ionizing radiation as a consequence of a nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an unstable nucleus radioactivity
positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested alpha
can damage skin tissue, and they can damage internal organs if they enter the body. beta
causes skin burns and can severely injure internal organs. not protected by PPE gamma
a substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change (self-reaction, polymerization) reactivity
describes the sensivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement water reactivity
sometimes referred to as tear gas; chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing irritation to the eyes, mouth, lungs, throat and skin riot control agents
hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons (methane & butane( saturated hydrocarbons
unsaturated hydrocarbons; have at least 1 multiple bond between 2 carbon atoms in the molecule which causes them to be more hazardous unsaturated hydrocarbons
material that contain the benzene "ring"; formed by 6 atoms with double bonds. Greatest hazard is toxicity aromatic hydrocarbons
when the teperature is reached by some portion of the mass of the organic peroxide self-accelerating decomposition temperature
the ability of a substance to form a solution with water solubility
mixture in which all of the ingredients are completely dissolved solution
pourable mixture of a solid and a liquid slurry
weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water specific gravity
the concentration of a solution. also degree of acid or base in water strength
ability of a substance to change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase sublimination
influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product temperature of product
byproducts of combustion process that are harmful to humans. toxic products of combustion
weight of vapor compared to air vapor density
force exerted by the gas or vapor released by a liquid or solid substance in a closed container space vapor pressure
these agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appearing for minutes, hours or days vesicants (blister agents)
measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows. Will affect the flow away from a leaking container viscosity
ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state. Will affect dispersement in air and expand the endagered area volatility
measurements of radioactivity. Number of atoms in a given quantity of radioactive material that are detected to have decayed in one minute counts per minute (cpm) & kilocounts per min (kcpm)
maximum level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) value
incubation period is the latency between exposure to a pathogen and onset of symptoms incubation period
amount of a pathogen necessary to manifest it's pathogenicity. dependent on pathogen variables as well as host variables infectious dose
The amount of a material in the air that is expected to kill 50% of a group lethal concentration (LC50)
Causes death of 50% of a group by any route than inhalation Lethal dose (LD50)
the ratio of the amount of one substance to the amount of another parts per million (ppm)
number of units of one substance relative to one billion units of another substance parts per billion (ppb)
regulatory limits of concentration in the air; 8-hr workday to 40-hr workweek Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
equals energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material (erg = unit of work, rad = largely obsolete unit) radiation absorbed dose (rad)
an international unit of the intensity of x-rays and gamma rays (Rem); Millrem (mrem)
maximum concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed without risk of injury and the exposure to higher concentrations should not occur threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C)
maximum average concentration; averaged over a 15-minute period to which healthy adult cna safely exposed for up to 15 inutes continuously. exposure shouldn't last more than 4X per day with 1hr between exposure Threshold limit value short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL)
the maximum concentration averaged over 8 hours to which a healthy adult can be r
Created by: SoCo711