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NeuroScience (WUSM)

Block 1

What makes the CNS? Brain and spinal cord.
What makes the PNS? 12 Cranial nerves, 12 spinal nerves and their respective ganglion.
What is the spinal cord a continuation of? How many segments does the continuation have? Continuation of the brain stem: midbrain, pons, and medulla oblangata.
How long is the spinal cord? How long is the vertebral column? Spinal cord is about 45 cm/18 inches; vertebral column is about 65 cm b/c lower 1/3 doesn't have the spinal cord.
Where does the spinal cord end in adults? What about in the fetus? Between L1 and L2 in adults; in the fetus, both the spinal cord and vertebral column are the same size; infants at L2/L3
What is the end of the spinal cord? Conus medularis (L1-L2)
Name the two enlargements and where they are present. Cervical enlargement: C3-T2 Lumbosacral enlargement: L2-S3
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? How many spinal segments are there? 31 pairs of both; 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
What is the cauda equina? The lower 4 lumbar, all of sacral and coccygeal extend down the verterbal column to reach their respective foramen to supply those areas.
Where is a lumbar puncture conducted? How can it cause damage? L2-L3/L3-L4; It can damage the lower lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves.
What is the purpose of a lumbar puncture? Spinal anethesia and CSF sampling for pathological or microbiology analysis.
What position is the lumbar puncture conducted in? What layers does the needle pierce? Extreme flexion/"laterl decubitus" to move the spinal cord up; Pierces 7 layers: skin, connective tissue, supraspinous ligaments, interspinous ligaments, ligamentum flavum, dura mater, arachnoid mater (finally reaches subarachnoid space)
How many vertebral segments are there? 30; 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
To determine the spinal segment for the vertebral segment, what needs to be added? Cervical region: +1 Upper Thoracic (T1-T6): +2 Lower Thoracic (T7-T12): +3 11th thoracic: +5 12th thoracic: +6 Below thoracic: add what's needed
What is a rhizotomy and a laminectomy? Rhizotomy is severing the roots of spinal nerves to lose senstations. Laminectomy is removal of the medually tumor on the lamina to relieve pressure.
What are the three layers of the spinal cord? -Dua mater (epidural space b/c no endosteal layer) -Arachnoid layer(covers the spinal cord; from foramen magnum to S2) -pia mater (deepest)
Three modifications of pia mater linea splendence (become thickened, fills the fissure) ligamentum denticulatum: teeth like extensions and attaches to inner aspect of duar mater after piercing the arachnoid mater
Created by: shraddp
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