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Anatomy Chap 1

Human Anatomy

Termdefinition
Herophilus First scientist to dissect both human and animal
Pelops Taught anatomy to Galen
Vesalius "Reformer of Anatomy"
Da Vinci Considered one of the greatest anatomist and biologist of all time
Anatomy study of structure
Physiology study of the function of body structures
Microscopic Anatomy Structure not visible to the naked eye
Cytology study of cells
Histology study of tissue
Gross(Macroscopic) Anatomy study of body structures visible to the naked eye
Developmental Anatomy Study of structural changes in the body between conception and maturation
Embryology Study of origin and development of the organism from fertilization of the oocyte until birth
Pathologic Anatomy Study of characteristic changes that happen during illness
Radiographic Anatomy Anatomic structures of features observed by non invasive procedures, such as ultrasound and x rays
Regional Anatomy Gross anatomy of all structures, external and internal, in one region of the body, such as upper limb; ex. skin, connective tissue, fat, bones muscles, nerves, and blood vessels of the neck
Surface Anatomy Superficial anatomic markings and gross anatomy of internal structures relative to overlying skin surface
Surgical Anatomy Anatomic landmarks used prior to surgery
Systemic Anatomy Gross anatomy of all components of an organ system
Level of Organization Atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Atom smallest units of matter
Molecule two or more atoms combined
Cell the basic units of structure and function in organisms
Tissue precise organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions
Organs two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions
Anatomic Position standing upright with feet parallel and flat on the floor; palms facing forward, arms at side
Metabolism the sum of all the chemical and physical changes that take place within the body
Coronal Plane vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts; also called frontal
Transverse Plane cuts perpendicularly along the axis of the body or organ; also know as cross-sectional or horizontal
Sagittal Plane extends through body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves; also known as median plane
Midsagittal Plane sagittal plane in the body mid line
Oblique Plane passes through specimen at an angle
Cranial Cavity formed by the cranium and houses the brain, cranial meninges, endocrine glands, blood vessels, lymph vessels, blood roots of cranial nerves
Vertebral Cavity formed by the individual bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord, spinal meninges, blood vessels, lymph vessels, roots of spinal nerves
Ventral Cavity arises from a space called the coelom that forms during embryonic development
Mediastinum median space in the thoracic cavity; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heart
Pericardium two layered serous membrane that encloses the heart
Parietal pericardium outermost layer and forms a sac around the heart
Parietal layer lines the internal surface of the body wall
Visceral layer covers the external surface of the organs (viscera) within the cavity
Serous cavity a "potential space" containing a lubricating film of serous fluid that is secreted by the cells of the serous membranes
Visceral pericardium forms the hearts external surface; a;so known as epicardium
Pericardial cavity potential space between the the parietal and visceral pericardia; contains serous fluid
Pleura two layered serous membranes that line the lungs
Parietal pleura lines the internal surface of the thoracic wall
Visceral pleura covers the external surface of the lung
Pleural cavity narrow, moist, potential space between the parietal and visceral pleurae; location of the lubricating serous fluid
Abdominopelvic cavity contains the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Abdominal cavity contains most of the organs of the digestive system, kidneys, and ureters of the urinary system
Pelvic cavity contains the distal part of the large intestine, urinary bladder and urethra, and the internal reproductive organs
Peritoneum moist, two layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Parietal peritoneum lines the internal walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
Visceral peritoneum en sheathes the external surfaces of most digestive organs
Peritoneal cavity potential space between the parietal and visceral cavities; where lubrication is stored
Epigastric region superior region in the middle column; contains part of the liver, part of the stomach, the duodenum, part of the pancreas, and both adrenal glands
Umbilical region middle region in the middle column; contains the transverse colon, part of the small intestine, and the branches of the blood vessels to the lower limbs
Hypogastric region inferior region in the middle column. contains part of the small intestine, the urinary bladder, and the sigmoid colon of the large intestine
Right hypochondriac region superior region lateral to the epigastric; contains part of the liver, the gallbladder, and part of the right kidney
Left hypochondriac region superior region lateral to the epigastric region; contains part of the stomach, the spleen, the left colic flexure of the large intestine, and part of the left kidney
Right lumbar region middle regions lateral to the umbilical region; contains ascending colon and the right colic flexure of the large intestine, the superior part of the cecum, part of the right kidney, and part of the small intestine
Left lumbar region middle region lateral to the umbilical region; contains descending colon, part of the left left kidney, and part of the small intestine
Right iliac region inferior lateral to hypogastric region; contains inferior end of the cecum, the appendix, and part of the small intestine
Left Iliac Region inferior lateral to the hypogastric region; contains junction parts of the colon, part of the small intestine
Boundaries for Cranial cavity P & A-cranium; I-cranial bones & imaginary line at base of skull; L & S- cranium
Boundaries for Vertebral canal PAIL- vertebral bones; S-imaginary horizontal line at base of skull or @ the superior aspect of the atlas
Boundaries of the Thoracic Cavity PAL-Rib cage; I- diaphragm; S-pectoral girdle
Boundaries for the Abdominal-pelvic Cavity S-diaphragm; A-abdominal wall; PL-abdominal wall and several bones; I-several bones and soft tissue
Retroperitoneal Cavity contains pancreas; duodenum; kidneys; adrenal glands; ascending, descending and transverse colon; sigmoid colon; rectum
Created by: kimaw1313