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EKG leads & waveforms

Einthovern's triangle bipolar leads: Lead I- Lead II- Lead III
Lead I right arm negative, left arm positive
Lead II right arm negative, left leg positive
Lead III left arm negative, left leg positive
Augmented leads univocal leads, zero voltage in the center of the heart. EKG machine uses a midpoint between the two other limbs as the negative reference point. Lead AVR, Lead AVL, Lead AVF
Lead AVR RIGHT ARM POSITIVE,left arm and leg negative
Lead AVL LEFT ARM POSITIVE, right arm and left leg negative.
Lead AVF LEFT LEG POSITIVE, right arm and left arm negative.
Precordial leads chest leads, unipolar lead. V1, V2, V4, V3, V6, V5
V1 fourth intercostal space, right of the sternum.
V2 fourth intercostal space, left of the sternum
V4 fifth intercostal space, midclavicular line
V3 fifth intercostal space, between V2-V4
V6 fifth intercostal space, midaxillary line
V5 fifth intercostal, space between V4-V6
EKG grid vertical measures voltage, each small box equals 1mm
EKG grid horizontal measures time, each small box equals .04 seconds
EKG running speed is 25mm/sec. the standardization is 1m/v or a deflection of 10mm high at the beginning of each row on the EKG
waveform movement away from the isoelectric line either positive or negative.
segment line between two waveforms
interval waveform plus segment
complex several waveforms
P wave atrial depolarization normal .12-.20
PR segment between Pwave and QRS complex. shows the delay at the AV node.
PR interval Pwave + PR segment. begins at the beginning of Pwave and ends at the beginning of the QRS complex.
TA wave atrial depolarization. NOT SEEN on EKG
QRS complex ventricaular depolarization normal .04-.11
R wave first positive waveform
Q wave negative waveform before Rwave
S wave negative waveform after the Rwave
ST segment form J point (end of QRS) to the beginning of the Twave
T wave ventricular repolarization
U wave depolarization of the purkinje fibers. seen in hypokalemia
R-R interval determines regularity and heart rate the interval between two R waves.
heart rate 6 second rule the number of QRS complexes in 6 sec X 10. done for an irregular rhythm
heart rate sequence method 300-150-100-75-60-50-43 rule. used for regular rhythms
systolic first beat high
diastolic last beat low
target heart rate 220 - age= top number 100%-25=heart rate 85%-25 if evercizing = heart rate 75%
bigminal every other beat is a PVC
trigeminal every third beat is a PVC
couplet 2 PVC in a row
triplet 3 PVC in a row
4 or greater run of ventricular tachycardia
unifocal all look a like
multifocal look different
Created by: joanneb