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Milady Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - General Anatomy and Physiology

Muscles that seperate the fingers Abductors
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help mantain balance while walking and standing Abductor hallucis
Muscles at the base of each finger that draw the fingers together Adductors
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones Anabolism
Study of the human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of; the science of the structure of organisms, or of their parts. Anatomy
Supplies blood to the side of the nose Angular Artery
Supplies blood to the front part of the ear Anterior auricular artery
See "popliteal artery" Anterior tibial artery
See "deep peroneal nerve" Anterior tibial nerve
Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries Arteries
The upper thin walled chambers of the heart Atrium
Muscle in the front of the ear that draws the ear forward Auricularis anterior
Muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward Auricularis posterior
Muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward Auricularis superior
Affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull Auriculotemporal nerve
The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscules; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart. Autonomic nervous system
The extension of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the nerve cell Axon
Middle part of the muscle Belly (muscle)
Muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm Bicep
Fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins and capillaries). Blood
Group of structures (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries)that distribute blood throughout the body. Blood vascular system
Groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 10 major systems. Body systems
Part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles, gland activity, and the power to think and feel emotions. Brain
Affects the muscles of the mouth Buccal nerve
Thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips Buccinator muscle
Thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins Capillaries
The involuntary muscle of the heart Cardiac muscle
The wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments Carpus
The phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular movement or digestion Catabolism
Basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell Cell membrane
Consists of brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves. Central nervous system
Located at the side of the neck, affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone Cervical cutaneous nerve
Affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle Cervical nerves
The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region Cervial vertebrae
System that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels Circulatory system
Collarbone; bone joining the sternum and scapula Clavicle
Artery that supplies blood to the face, head and neck Common carotid artery
A division of the sciatic nerve that extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches Common peroneal nerve
Fibrous tissue that binds together, protects and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage and tendons Connective tissue
Muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically. Corrugator muscle
An oval, bony case that protects the brain. Cranium
All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction and self-repair of the cell. Cytoplasm
A nerve that extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes. Deep peroneal nerve
Large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body Deltoid
Tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that cary impulses toward the cell. Dendrites
Muscle surrounding the lower lip; depresses the lower lip and draws it to one side. Depressor labii inferioris muscle
Muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdonimal region and helps control breathing. Disphragm
The mouth, stomach, intestine and salivary and gastric glands that change food into nutrients and wastes. Digestive system
A finger or toe. Digit
Nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers and toes. Digital nerve
A nerve that extends up from the toes and foot, just under the skin, supplying impulses to toes and foot, as well as the muscles and skin of the leg, where it is called the superficial peroneal nerve or the nusculo-cutaneous nerve. Dorsal
See "dorsal". Dorsal cutaneous nerve
See "popliteal". Dorsalis pedis artery
Ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream. Endocrine (ductless) glands
Group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities and health of the entire body. Endocrine system
Tendon that connects the occipitalis and frontalis. Epicranial aponeurosis
The broad muscle that covers the top of the skull consists of the occipitalis and frontalis. Epicranius
Protetive covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes and the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs and glands. Epithelial tissue
Light spongy bone between the eye sockets and forms part of the nasal cavities. Ethmoid bone
Group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, intestines and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter. Excretory system
The act of breathing outward, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs. Exhalation
Duct glands that produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts, such as the sudoriferous (sweat) glands and the sebaceous (oil) glands. Exocrine (duct) glands
Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand and fingers to form a straight line. Extensors
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing. Extensor digitorum brevis
Muscle that bends the foot up and extends the toes. Extensor digitorum longus
Supplies blood to the anterior (front) part of the scalp, ear, face, neck and side of the head External carotid artery
Vein located at the side of the neck that caries blood returning to the heart from the head, face and neck. External Jugular vein
Supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth and nose. Facial artery
A heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee. Femur
The smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visualized as a "bump" on the little-toe side of the ankle. Fibula
The chief sensory nerve of the face and serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing. Fifth cranial nerve (also known as trifacial or trigeminal)
Extensor muscles of the wrist involved in flexing the wrist. Flexors
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing. Flexor digitorum brevis
Supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids. Frontal artery
Forms the forehead. Frontal bone
Anterior (front) portion of the epicranius; muscle of the scalp that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward and causes wrinkles across the forehead. Frontalis
Muscle that is attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down. Gastrocnemius
Specialized organs that remove certain constituents from the blood to convert them into new substances. Glands
Located at the side of the neck, affects the face, ears, neck and parotid gland. Greater auricular nerve
Located in the back of the head, affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head. Greater occipital nerve
Muscular cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system. Heart
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen. Hemoglobin
Science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy. Histology
Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body to stimulate a specific activity. Hormones
Uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder. Humerus
U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles. Hyoid Bone
Supplies blood to the lower lip. Inferior labial artery
Supplies blood to the muscles of the eye. Infraorbital artery
Affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip and mouth. Infraorbital nerve
Nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose. Infratrochlear nerve
The breathing in of air. Inhalation
Part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skeleton. Insertion
The skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails. Integumentary system
Supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose and internal ear. Internal carotid artery
Vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck. Internal jugular vein
Connection between two or more bones of the skeleton. Joint
Small, thin bones located at the front inner wall of the orbits (eye sockets). Lacrimal bones
Broad, flat superficial muscle convering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm. Latissimus dorsi
Also known as craninus, a muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward. Levator anguli oris
Also known as quadratus labi superioris, a muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expessing distaste. Levator labii superioris
Body tissue that carries food, waste products and hormones. Liquid tissue
Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Lungs
Clear yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces of the body; carries waste and impurities away from the cells. Lymph
Special structures found inside the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph. Lymph nodes
Body system that acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels and lymph glands. Lymph vascular system
Lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face. Mandible
Affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip. Mandibular nerve
Muscles that coordinate with the temporalis muscles in opening and closing the mouth and are sometimes referred to as chewing muscles. Masseter
Bones of the upper jaw. Maxillae (singular; maxilla)
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face. Maxillary nerve
Affects the skin of the lower lip and chin. Mental nerve
Muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin. Mentalis
Chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities. Metabolism
Bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges. Metacarpus
One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of five bones, which are long and slender, like the metacarpal bones of the hand, help make-up the foot. All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones. Metatarsal
Supplies blood to the temples. Middle temporal artery
Cells dividing into two new cells (daughter cells); the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues. Mitosis
Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles. Motor nerves
Body system that covers, shapes and supports the skeleton tissue; contracts and moves various parts of the body. Muscular system
Tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body. Muscular tissue
Science of the nature, structure, function and diseases of the muscles. Myology
Bones that form the bridge of the nose. Nasal bones
Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted. Nerves
Tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions. Nerve tissue
Body system composed of the brain, spinal cord and nerves; controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently. Nervous system
Nerve cell; basic unit of the nervous system, consisting of cell body, nucleus, dendrites and axon. Neuron
Science of the structure, function and pathology of the nervous system. Neurology
Also called involuntary or smooth muscle; muscle that functions automatically without conscious will. Nonstriated muscle
Dense, active protoplasm found in the centre of the cell; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism. Nucleus
Supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown. Occipital artery
Hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape. Occipital bone
Back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward. Occipitalis
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball and nasal passage. Ophthalmic nerve
Ring muscle of the eye socket; enables you to close your eyes. Orbicularis oculi muscle
Flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers and wrinkles the lips. Orbicularis oris muscle
Structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions. Organs
Part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle. Origin
Bone os
The study of anatomy, structure and function of the bones. Osteology
Form the floor and outer wall of the nose, roof of the mouth and floor of the orbits. Palatine bones
Supplies blood to the side and crown of the head. Parietal artery
Form the sides and top of the cranium. Parietal bones
Also called the accessary bone, forms the knee cap joint. Patella
Muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor
Double-layered membranous sac enclosing the heart Pericardium
System of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system; it has both sensory and motor nerves Peripheral nervous system
Muscle that originates on the lower surface of the fibula. It bends the foot down and out Peroneus brevis
Muscle that covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward Peroneus longus
Bones of the fingers or toes (singluar: phalanx) Phalanges
Study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures Physiology
Fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cell Plasma
Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots Platelets
Broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip Platysma muscle
Divides into two seperate arteries known as the anterior tibial and the posterior tibial. The anterior tibial goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis which supplies the foot with blood Popliteal artery
Supplies blood to the scalp, the area behind and above the ear and the skin behind the ear Posterior auricular artery
Affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull Posterior auricular nerve
See "popliteal artery" Posterior tibial artery
Covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose Procerus
Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward. Pronators
Colorless jelly-like substance found inside the cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present Protoplasm
Blood circulation from heart to lungs to be purified Pulmonary circulation
Artery that supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand Radial artery
Supplies the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand Radial nerve
Smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb Radius
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells Red blood cells
Automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of specific muscles as a response to impulses carried along a motor neuron to a muscle, causing a spontaneous reaction Reflex
Body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring. Reproductive system
Act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungs and within each cell Respiration
Body system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide wastes Respiratory system
Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax Ribs
Muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning Risorius
Supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot Saphenous nerve
One of a pair of shoulder blades; a large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder Scapula
Nerves that carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain and pressure are experienced Sensory (afferent) nerves
Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm Serratus anterior
Physical foundation of the body, comprised of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints Skeletal system
Located at the base of the skull, affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear Smaller occipital nerve
Muscle that originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down Soleus
Joins all of the bones of the craninum together Sphenoid bone
The portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk and is protected by the spinal column. Spinal cord
Muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head. Sternocleidomastoideus
Breastbone; flat bone that forms the ventrical(front) support of the ribs Sternum
Also called voluntary or skeletal muscle; muscle that is consciously controlled. Striated Muscle
Supplies blood to the chin and lower lip Submental Artery
A nerve that extends down the leg, just under the skin, supplying impulses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as the skin and toes on top of the foot. Superficial Peroneal Artery
Supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose. Superior Labial Artery
Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward. Supinator
Supplies blood to the eyelid and forehead. Supraorbital Artery
Affects the skin between the eyes and the upper side of the nose. Supratochlear Nerve
Supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg. Sural Nerve
Circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart: also called general circulation. Systemic Circulation
One of three that comprise the ankle joint. The two other bones are the tibia and fibula Talus
One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of seven bones (talus, calcaneous, navicular, three cuneiform bones, and the cuboid). All three subsections comprise 26 bones Tarsal
Form the sides of the head in the ear region. Temporal Bone
Affects the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid and upper part of the cheek.Temporal Nerve Temporal muscle: one of the muscles involved in mastication (chewing).
The chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework of the heart, lungs, and other internal organs Thorax
The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a "bump" on the big -toe -side of the ankle. Tibia
A division of the sciatic nerve that passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the calf, the skin of the leg, and the sole, heel, and underside of the toes. Tibia Nerve
Muscle that covers the front of the shin. It bends the foot upward and inward. Tibialis Anterior
Collection of similast cells that perform a particular function. Tissue
Supplies blood to the skin and masseter. Transverse Facial Artery
Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swining movements of the arm. Trapezius
Muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth. Triangularis
Large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm. Tricep
Thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression. Turbinal Bones
Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger. Ulna
Artery that supplies blood to the muscle of the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand. Ulnar Artery
Nerve that affects the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand. Unlar Nerve
Structures that temporarily close a passage, or permit blood flow in one direction only. Valves
Thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; veins contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart and lungs. Veins
The lower think-walled chambers of the heart. Ventrical
Flat thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum. Vomer Bone
Blood cells that perform the functions of destroying disease-casueing microorganisms. White Blood Cells
Form the prominence of the cheekscheekbones. Zygomatic / Malar Bones
Affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek. Zygomatic Nerve
Muscles extending from the zygrmatic bone to the angle of the mouth; elevate the lip, as in laughing. Zygomaticus
Created by: lois100754
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