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Everything else you would want to know about the central nervous system

Left hemisphere of cerebral cortex controls comprehension of spoken & written language, speech production, math and logic
Right hemisphere of cerebral cortex visual-spacial skills, face recognition, intuition, artistic & musical ability
People who have left hemisphere dominance 90% of people, right handed usually
People with right hemisphere dominance 10% of people, tend to be left handed and male
Ambidexterous equal function of hemispheres, sometimes are dyslexic
Cerebral peduncles part of the midbrain, they are visible anteriorly, vertical tracts, they include pyramidal motor tracts
Superior cerebellar peduncles part of the midbrain, visible posteriorly, horizontal tracts, extend to cerebellum
Corpora quadrigemina In midbrain, visible posteriorly, they include superior colliculi and inferior colliculi
Substantia nigra in the midbrain, contain melanin
Red nucleus In midbrain, motor pathways for limb flexion
Dura mater outermost meninges layer. Has periosteal and meningeal layers.
Periosteal part of dura matter, attached to periosteum of skull
Meningeal deep part of the dura mater, extends to dural septa. Includes falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, and tentorium cerebelli
Falx cerebri longitudinal fissure of meningeal layer of dura mater
Falx cerebelli along vermis, part of the meningeal layer of dura mater
Tentorium cerebelli over cerebellum into transverse fissure, part of the meningeal layer of dura mater
Reticular formation (structure) three columns of neurons through brainstem (medial to lateral: raphe nuclei, medial group, lateral group)
Reticular formation (function) arousal of brain as a whole
RAS reticular activating system, part of the reticular formation, it sends constant stream of impulses to cerebral cortex to keep it alert; filters out repetetive, familiar or weak sensory imput
Arachnoid matter middle meninges layer, spans sulci; consists of subdural space, subarachnoid space, and arachnoid villi
Subdural space it is the abovemost layer of arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid space part of the arachnoid mater, it is below subdural space; cavity filled with CSF where large blood vessels are located
Arachnoid villi part of the arachnoid mater, it protrudes superiorly into dural sinuses to return CSF to circulatory system
Arachnoid and pia mater extend ____ below L1 and S2 to form a sac containing CSF (lumbar tap)
Conus medullaris cone shaped terminus of spinal cord (L1)
Filum terminale extension of pia from conus medullaris inferiorly to coccyx
Cauda equina collection of nerve roots extending inferiorly from the terminus of the spinal cord
White mater of the spinal cord mostly vertical tracts; posterior, anterior, and lateral funiculi
Gray mater core of spinal cord gray commissure with central canal connects horns of gray mater; dorsal, ventral, and lateral horns (only in thoracic and superior lumbar)
Anterior median fissure & posterior median sulcus roughly divide the spinal cord into left and right
Upper motor neurons part of the descending pathways, they are cell bodies in cerebral cortex or subcortical motor nuclei
Lower motor neurons part of the descending pathways, they are cell bodies in anterior horn, fibers extend to skeletal muscles
Descending pathways and tracts (main pathways) Direct (pyramidal) system, indirect (extrapyramidal) system
Direct (pyramidal) system one of main descending pathways, in pyramidal tracts, don't synapse until reaching the spinal cord
Indirect (extrapyramidal) system one of main descending pathways, all motor pathways outside pyramidal pathways. include: reticulospinal tracts, rubrospinal tracts, tectospinal tracts, vestibulospinal tracts
Homeostatic imbalances of spinal cord trauma induced paralysis, poliomyelitis, ALS
Examples of trauma induced paralysis flaccid paralysis, spastic paralysis, paraplegia, quadriplegia, hemiplegia
First step of cerebellar processing cerebral cortex signals cerebellum of intent to initiate movement
Second step of cerebellar processing sensory info is evaluated by cerebellum to determine body position
Third step of cerebellar processing cerebellar cortex calculates coordination of the movement
Fourth step of cerebellar processing cerebellum sends a "blueprint" for movement to the cerebral cortex and to brainstem motor nuclei via the superior cerebellar peduncles
Spinal cord (location and protection) Extends from foramen magnum to L1 or L2, protected by meninges, bone, and CSF
Epidural space between wall of vertebral foramen and dura
Created by: hanalin2