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A&P 2 - Endocrine

A&P 2 - Young - Test 1 - Endocrine System

Chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them autocrines
Chemicals that act locally but effect cell types other than those releasing them paracrines
Ductless glands that produce hormones endocrine glands
Ducted glands that produce nonhormonal substances such as sweat and saliva exocrine glands
3 categories of hormones amino acid based, steroids, eicosanoids (usually eicosanoids are autocrines and paracrines)
Certain tissue a hormone effects target cell
Maintaining relatively stable conditions in the extracellular fluid of the body Homeostasis
2 systems that control homeostasis endocrine, nervous
Branch of nervous system involved in keeping homeostasis ANS, Autonomic Nervous System
Lipid soluble, cholesterol based hormones steroids
2 eicosanoids leukotrienes, prostaglandins
Eicosanoid that mediates inflammation and allergic reactions leukotrienes
Eicosanoid that raises blood pressure, increases uterine contractions, and enhances clotting and inflammation prostaglandins
Functions of hormones - regulate metabolic process - control rates of chemical reactions - aid in transport of substances through membranes - help regulate water and electrolyte balance - vital role in reproductive process - vital role in growth and development
Hormones are trans ported through the body by what? blood
Hormones usually work under what type of feedback loop? negative
Name an example of a hormone that works under a positive feedback loop oxytocin
Hormones are eliminated by what 3 things? target tissue, liver, kidneys
Stomach secretes what hormone? gastrin
Amino acid based hormone sources pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal medulla, hypothalamus
Steroid hormone sources adrenal cortex, gonads, thyroid gland
5 mechanisms of hormone action - alter plasma membrane permaeability or electrical state by opening or closing ion channels - stimulate enzyme formation - activates or deactivates enzymes - induces secretory activity - stimulates mitosis
Who won a nobel prize for his work on second messengers? E Sutherland
Second messenger system steps 1)hormone binds to receptor 2)receptor binds a G protein which when activated activates adenylate cyclase enzyme in turn 3)adenylate cyclase enzyme converts ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP) 4)cAMP activates protein kinases which cause phosporylation of prote
What is the "Second Messenger" in second messenger sytems? cyclic AMP (cAMP)
Direct Gene Activation steps 1)Steroid hormone enters cell 2)binds to intracellular receptor 3)receptor-hormone complex enters nucleus and activates gene 4)gene prompts formation of mRNA which directs the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes
G protein is activated when? (GDP) guanosine diphosphate is diplaced by (GTP) guanosine triphosphate
Enzymes that phosphorylate various proteins protein kinases
Intracellular enzyme that degrades cAMP phosphodiesterase
Converts ATP to cAMP adenylate cyclase
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone aka corticotropin
target cells forming more receptors in response to rising blood levels of a specific hormone up-regulation (opposite is down regulation)
Length of time for a hormone's blood level to decrease by half half-life
3 types of hormone interaction (with another hormone) permissiveness, synergism, antagonism
3 types of endocrine gland stimuli 1)humoral 2)neural 3)hormonal
PTH Parathyroid Hormone
Another name for the pituitary gland hypophysis
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is composed of pituicytes (glia-like supporting cells) and nerve fibers
Other names for the pituitary posterior lobe neurohypophysis, pars nervosa
Other names for the pituitary anterior lobe adenohypophysis, pars distalis
Connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior lobe of the pituitary? hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
The pituatary gland is located where? the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
Anterior Lobe of the pituitary gland is derived from what? Rathkes pouch
Anterior Lobe of the pituitary gland secretes what six hormones? hGH, PRL, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
ADH antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin
Paraventricular Nuclei of the hypothalamus synthesize? Oxytocin
Supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus synthesize? ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
What is the Hypophyseal Portal System? vascular connection between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary lobe
3 parts of the Hypophyseal Portal System? Primary Capillary Plexus, Hypophyseal Portal Veins, Secondary Capillary Plexus
Hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands tropins or tropic hormones
Somatotrophs secrete hGH
Lactotrophs (aka Mammatrophs) secrete PRL
GHRH Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
GHIH Growth Hormone-Inhibiting Hormone
GHRH & GHIH are secreted from where? Hypothalamus
Hypersecretion of hGH in children results in Gigantism
Hypersecretion of hGH in adults results in Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of hGH in children results in Pituitary Dwarfism
TSH Thyroid-stimulating hormone or Thyrotropin
Thryotrophs in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete TSH
TRH Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
TRH is secreted from where? Hypothalamus
ACTH is secreted by what cells? Corticotrophs
ACTH acts on what to produce what? Adrenal Cortex, to release corticosteroid hormones most specifically glucocorticoids that help the body resist stressors
CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
LH, or ICSH in males Luteinizing hormone, Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone
FSH stimulates __________ production gamete (sperm or egg)
LH promotes production of _______________ gonadal hormones
GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone
FSH and LH and secreted where Gonadotrophs
PRL Prolactin
PIH Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (dopamine)
Hyposecretion of TSH results in Cretinism in children, myxedema in adults
Hyperthyroidism Grave's Disease
Condition due to lack of ADH Diabetes Insipidus
ADH is produced by supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus when? when the solute concentration of the ECF is above 300 mosm per liter
Causes milk ejection from the breasts by way of the "letdown" reflex Oxytocin
Synthetic oxytocin given to induce labor Pitocin
TH Thyroid hormone
TH is made up of what 2 iodine-containing amine hormones? T3 & T4
T3 is? Triiodothyronine
T4 is? Thyroxine
The thyroid gland has 2 lobes connected by what? Isthmus
Calcitonin is secreted where? Parafollicular cells (C-cells) of the thyroid gland
Created by: K1N1V



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