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Muscular Ex Rev

Muscular System Review

QuestionAnswer
List 4 functions of skeletal muscle movement, posture heat production, joint stability
List 4 characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue excitability-ability to receive and respond to stimulus contractility- ability to shorten or compact extensibility- ability to stretch or lengthen elasticity- ability to return to its original shape and length
endomysium connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle cell/fiber
perimysium layer of connective tissue that surrounds the fasciculus (bundle of cells)
epimysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle
acetylcholine a neurotransmitter. A chemical substance that is released at the axon terminals of many neurons to carry the impulse across a synaptic cleft
tendon a band of dense fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bones
aponeurosis a sheet of tendon like material, serves as an attachment for muscle to bone and other tissue
origin end of a muscle that is attached to a bone that is stationary; the end Opposite the insertion
insertion the end of a muscle that is attached to a bone or cartilage that moves; the end opposite the origin
What happens during contraction muscle fiber gets shorter and thicker
What happens to muscle fiber during relaxation they get longer and thinner
How do skeletal muscles move bones by pulling on the bones; they never push
flexion (to bend) decreasing angle between 2 bones Bending elbow or knee
extension (to straighten) increasing angle between 2 bones straightening elbow or knee
abduction (take away) to move a bone or limb away from the midline or axis of the body "jumping jacks"
adduction (bring together) moves a bone or limb toward the midline of the body. arms back to side of body
rotation movement of bone around its own axis in a pivot joint "shaking head no"
dorsiflexion backward bending of the foot (toes up) "standing on heels"
plantar flexion pointing sole of foot downward "standing on toes"
pronation facing downward (hand-palm down/inferior)
supination facing upward (hand-palm up/superior)
hyperextension extreme or abnormal extension (extension of knee with plantar flexion)
circumduction conelike circular movement of a body segment movement of arm at shoulder joint with elbow extended; finger tips move in a circle
orbicularis oculi circular muscle around the eyes closes the lid
zygomaticus extends diagonally from the corner of the mouth to the cheekbone elevates corners of mouth for smiling
buccinator horizontal cheek muscle compresses cheek for blowing; trumpeter's muscle
masseter covers lateral aspect of the jaw closes the mouth, elevates mandible
pectoralis major large fan-shaped muscle that covers the anterior chest adducts the arm across chest
deltoid thick muscle that forms contour of the shoulder flexes, abducts, extends arm
biceps brachii major muscle in the anterior compartment of arm; has 2 heads flexes and supinates/flexes elbow
triceps brachii only muscle in posterior compartment of arm; has 3 heads extends elbow
rectus abdominis long, straight muscle on each side of the linea alba compresses abdomen and flexes trunk
gluteus maximus largest gluteal muscle/buttocks extends thigh
quadricep group group of 4 muscle that form the mass of the anterior thigh; forms a common tendon that passes over patella extends knee, flexes thigh
name 4 quadricep muscles rectus femoris vastus lateralis vastus medialis vastus intermedius
hamstring group large muscle in the posterior thigh flexes leg and extends thigh
name 3 hamstring muscles biceps femoris semimembranosus semitendinosus
gastrocnemius superficial muscle on the posterior surface of leg; forms curve of calf flexes knee/points toes
atrophy a decrease in size of muscle fibers or a wasting away of muscles from poor nutrition, lack of use, motor unit dysfunction, or lack of motor nerve impulses
isometric muscle contraction without movement
cramp (spasm) increase in muscle tension with or without shortening due to excessive motor nerve activity may result in a knot; often associated with mineral deficiency or muscle fatigue
myositis inflammation of voluntary muscle
sprain trauma to a joint with injury to ligaments and/or tendons
strain "overstretched muscle" commonly called a pull, an injury of a muscle or tendon due to a violent contraction, forced stretching
tic an involuntary twitching of a muscle
twitch muscle contraction from a single stimulus
paralysis loss of sensation/voluntary movement, may be temporary or permanent
hemiplegia paralysis on on side of the body
paraplegia paralysis of the lower extremities and any degree of trunk
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremities
paresis partial paralysis
what is muscular dystrophy chronic progressive muscle disorder, causes progressive muscle weakness and atrophy
what is myasthenia gravis neuromuscular disorder caused by not enough acetylcholine. Starts in face
what muscles does myasthenia gravis affect eye (ptyosis); mastication; pharyngeal; respiratory
signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis drooping facial muscles; drooping upper eyelids; double vision; drooping throat; difficulty chewing or swallowing; slurred speech
what is polymositis inflammatory disease of multiple skeletal muscles; pain, weakness, chronic
what is rhabdomyoma striated muscular tissue tumor
muscle biopsy removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination
EMG electromyogram; recording of muscular reactions when given electrical stimulation
IM intramuscular
sternocleidomastoid straplike muscle that ascends obliquely over neck laterally flexes and rotates head sternum, clavicle, mastoid attachment
Created by: mlarke