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Everything you would want to know about the Central Nervous System

Gryus ridge of cerebrum
Sulcus shallow groove of cerebrum
Fissure deep groove of cerebrum
Ridges and Grooves (gyri and sulci) used a brain landmarks
Cerebral Hemisphere mass 85% of brain
Cerebral Hemisphere function responsible for sensation, emotion, intellect, voluntary movement
Longitudinal fissure seperates the two cerebral hemispheres
Transverse fissure seperates cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum
Central sulcus (of cerebral hemispheres) seperates frontal from parietal lobes
Lateral sulcus (of cerebral hemispheres) seperates temporal from parietal and frontal lobes
Parietooccipital sulcus (of cerebral hemispheres) separates occipital from parietal
Insula fith lobe: burried deep w/in lateral sulcus
Average brain size (male) 1600g
Average brain size (female) 1450g
Brain function provides for voluntary movement, interpretation and integration of senses, consciousness and cognitive function
Primary brain vessels of development prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
What structure/part brain develops from rostral portion of embryonic neural tube
Regions of adult brain cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum
Only found in cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres gray matter cortex on outside, white matter, then gray matter nuclei within the white matter
Regions of brain without a cortex diencephalon and brain stem
Ventricles spaces in brain filled with CSF
Lateral ventricle structure/location C-shaped, deep in cerebral hemispheres
Septum pellucidum seperates (anteriorly) the lateral ventricles
Third ventricle location within thalamus
Interventricular foramina connects third ventricle to the lateral ventricles
Fourth ventricle location between the cerebellum and pons
Cephalization elaboration of rostral portion of CNS, increase in number of neurons in head
Cerebral aqueduct connects third and fourth ventricles
Rostral toward the snout
Two lateral apertures & one medial aperture connects the fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space
Cerebral cortex (structure) gray matter, convolutions give it 3x its surphase area
Cerebral cortex (function) where the conscious mind is located, eache hemisphere deals with sensory and motor functions of opposite side of body
Brodmann areas functional areas of cerebral cortex (very oversimplified)
Three types of Brodmann areas motor (voluntary movement), sensory (awareness of sensation), association (integration of info)
Cerebral tracts myelinated fibers coursing through white matter (nerves in PNS)
Commissures cerebral white matter, they connect corresponding basal nuclei of opposite hemispheres, HORIZONTAL
Corus callosum largest of the commissures
Association fibers cerebral white matter, they connect different areas of the same hemisphere
Projection fibers cerebral white matter, they connect lower areas with highter areas of CNS, VERTICAL
Pyramidal tracts part of cerebral white matter and a type of projection fiber, they're large voluntary motor tracts from precentral gyrus to spinal cord
Internal capsule part of the cerebral white matter and type of projection fiber, they are a band of tracts in each hemisphere, between the thalamus and some basal nuclei
Corona radiata radiation of fibers just above the brainstem
Basal nuclei cerebral gray matter, "islands" within the white matter, they are lateral to ventricles
Corpora striatum (structure) type of basal nuclei, have a striped appearance due to corona radiata
Corpora striatum (function) control starting, stopping and regulation of intensity of skeletal muscle movements
Components of basal nuclei lentiform nucleus (consists of putamen and globus pallidus), caudate nucleus, and amygdala
Diencephalon surrounded by cerebral hemispheres, consists of three paired gray matter structures: thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
Thalamus (structure) it makes up 80% of the diencephalon, consists of about 12 nuclei types
Intermediate mass Connects the third ventricle to the two thalami that it lies between
Thalamus (function) All sensory inputs pass through it before ascending to the cortex, crude recognition (pleasant or not)
Hypothalamus (function) main visceral control center for homeostasis: autonomic control, emotional, temp and hunger regulation, water balance & thirst regulation, sleep/wake cycle, endocrine
Infundibulum stalk of pituitary, extends from hypothalamus
Mamillary bodies part of hypothalamus, deal with olfaction relay, visible anteriorly
Hypothalamus (structure/location) below the thalamus, contains several nuclei
Epithalamus (location) above the thalamus, forms the roof of third ventricle
Pineal gland extends posteriorly from epithalamus, secretes melatonin
Choroid plexus part of the epithalamus, forms CSF, its in the roof of third ventricle
Brain stem (components) midbrain, pons, medulla
Brain stem (composition) fiber tracts and nuclei, contains roots of 10 out of 12 cranial nerves
Pons (structures located w/in) middle cerebellar peduncles (superficial horizontal tracts extending to cerebellum), pneumotaxic center, pontine nuclei
Pons (composition/location) Made of deep vertical projection fibers, forms most of the anterior wall of fourth ventricle
Autonomic reflex center part of medulla, cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory, vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing
Olives part of medulla, swellings lateral to pyramids, they send info on extent of strech of skeletal muscles to cerebellum
Decussation pyramids part of medulla, visible anteriorly, they are the crossover point for pyramidal tracts
Pyramids part of medulla, visible anteriorly, contain pyramidal motor tracts
Folia small transverse gyri of the cerebellum
Cerebelum (structure) Two hemispheres seperated by vermis, each has three lobes: anterior, posterior, and flocculonodular (deep to vermis)
Vermis seperates the two cerebellum hemispheres
Purkinje cells cortex of gray matter of cerebellum
arbor vitae internal white matter of cerebellum
Dentate nuclei deep gray matter within white matter of the cerebellum
Cerebellar peduncles tracts carrying impulses to and from cerebellum. There are superior, middle, and inferior of these
Cerebellum (function) subconscious coordination of skeletal muscle movement on same side of body
Limbic system emotional brain, cerebral structures (hippocampus, part of amygdala, cingulated gyrus), diencephalons structures (hypothalamus, anterior nucleus of thalamus), fornix
Fornix tract connecting some of the paired structures of the limbic system
Meninges three connective tissue coverings of the CNS: dura matter, arachnoid matter, and pia matter
Meningitis inflammation of the meninges membranes
Pia matter (of meninges) tightly clings to brain surface following gyri and sulci, surrounds small blood vessels as they descend into brain
Cerebrospinal fluid (composition) similar to blood plasma but has fewer protiens, different ionic composition
Cerebrospinal fluid (formation) formed by choroid plexus (capillary beds in roof of ventricles)
Cerebrospinal fluid (flow) choroid plexus--lateral ventricles-- interventricular formaina-- third ventricle-- cerebral aqueduct-- fourth ventricle-- some to central canal (spinal cord)-- most through median, lateral apertures-- subarachnoid space-- arachnoid villi-- dural sinuses--
Things that can cross blood brain barrier glucose, essential aa, some ions, fats, fatty acids, oxygen, carbon dioxide, alcohol, nicotine, anesthetics
Blood brain barrier capillaries serving brain have unique structure (insures constant chem environment for brain tissue), endothelial cell connected by tight junctions, thick basal lamina, astrocytes cause endothelial cells to form and maintain tight junctions
Degenerative brain disorders alzheimer's, parkinson's, huntington's
Traumatic brain injury concussion, contusion, subdural or subarachnoid hemmorage, cerebral edema
Cerebral vascular accident a stroke, homeostatic imbalance of brain
Dural sinuses areas of seperation between layers of meninges, where venous blood collects and drains into jugular veins
Created by: hanalin2