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Chapter 16

Digestive System

The _________ tube begins at the mouth. Alimentary
The alimentary tube begins at the mouth, and ends at the ________. Anus
The teeth, tongue, and salivary glands are ________ organs. Accesory
The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are _________ organs. Accesory
No digestion takes place in the ________ organs. Accesory
Digestion does take place in some organs of the ________ tube. Alimentary
Name the parts of the alimentary tube in which digestion takes place. Oral cavity, stomach, small intestine.
The oral cavity, stomach, and small intestine of the alimentary tube is where __________ takes place. Digestion
In the alimentary tube, most absorption of nutrients takes place in the ___________. Small intestine
Food is changed to simpler molecules during __________ digestion. Chemical
During chemical digestion, food is changed to __________. Simpler molecules
Chemical digestion is accomplished by specific __________. Enzymes
Food is broken down to smaller pieces during _________ digestion. Mechanical
During mechanical digestion food is broken down to __________. Smaller pieces
Mechanical digestion creates more __________ area, for the action of digestive enzymes. Surface
Mouth is the opening for food into the ________. Oral cavity
The superior boundary of the oral cavity is the ___________. Hard palates
Hard palates are the superior boundary of the __________. Oral cavity
Both the teeth and tongue contribute to _________ digestion. Mechanical
Both the teeth and tongue contribute to mechanical digestion by __________. Chewing
An individual developes ______ sets of teeth. Two
The first set of teeth an individual developes is called __________ teeth. Deciduous
If complete, a set of deciduous teeth consits of _______ teeth. Twenty
Deciduous teeth are the _________ set of teeth an individual developes. First
There are Twenty teeth in a complete set of _________ teeth. Deciduous
The second set of teeth a individual developes is called __________ teeth. Permanent
Permanent teeth are the __________ set of teeth an individual developes. Second
A set of permanent teeth, if complete consists of ________ teeth. 32
There are 32 teeth in a complete set of ________teeth. Permanent
Enamel covers the _______ of a tooth. Crown
The crown of a tooth is covered by _________. Enamel
It is enamel that forms a hard _________ surface. Chewing
Dentin forms the _______ of a tooth. Root
Dentin forms the root of a tooth and the interior of the ________. Crown
The root of the tooth and the interior of the crown is formed by _________. Dentin
The________ cavity contains nerves and blood vessels. Pulp
The pulp cavity contains _______________. Nerves and blood vessels
The ___________ membrane produces a bone like cement to anchor the roots of the tooth. Periodontal
The periodontal membrane produces a bone like _________ to anchor the roots of the tooth. Cement
The __________ membrane lines the tooth sockets in the mandible and maxillae. Periodontal
The tooth sockets in the mandible and maxillae are lined with ___________. Perodontal membrane
The tongue is important for the sense of ________. Taste
The _________ is important for the sense of taste. Tongue
During swallowing the tongue is elevated to push food towards the _________. Pharynx
During swallowing the tongue is elevated to push ________ towards the pharyns. Food
The salivary glands that are located below the floor of the mouth are called __________. Sublingual
The sublingual glands are located on the floor of the _________. Mouth
The salivary glands that are located in front of the ears are called the __________. Parotid
The partid glands are located in front of the _________. Ears
The salivary glands that are located at the posterior corners of the madible called the _____________. Submandibular
The submandibular glands are located at the posterior corners of the ____________. Mandible
The salviary glands are __________ glands. Exocrine
The exocrine glands have a duct that take _________ to the oral cavity. Saliva
The digestive enzyme in saliva is called __________. Salivary amylase
Salivary amylase is the ____________ in saliva. Enzyme
Salivary amylase digests starch to ________. Maltose
Starch is digested to maltose by ____________. Salivary amylase
The water in saliva is important to __________ food. Dissolve
The water in saliva helps dissolve food so it may be __________. Tasted
The water in saliva moistens the food so that it can be ___________. Swallowed
The only eating-related function of the pharynx is ____________. Swallowing
Swallowing is the only eating-related function of the ____________. Pharynx
The ____________ takes food from the pharynx to the stomach. Esophagus
Food is taken from the pharynx to the stomach by the _____________. Esophagus
The circular smooth muscle at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach is called the __________. Lower esophageal sphincter
Where is the lower esophageal sphincter located? At the junction of the esophagus and the stomach
Contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter prevents _________ of food into the esophagus. Backup
Mucosa includes the epitheial tissue that lines the ________. Organ
Mucosa secretes mucus and __________ enzymes. Digestive
Digestive enzymes and mucus are secreted by _________. Mucosa
Mucosa contains lymph nodules to destroy _________. Pathogens
Submucosa is made of __________ connective tissue. Areolar
The submucosa contains __________ plexus. Meissners
Meissners plexus regulates the secretions of the __________. Mucosa
Secretions of mucosa are regulated by __________. Meissners plexus
The external muscle layer is made of ________ layers of smooth muscle. Two
The external muscle is made of two muscle layers of ___________. Smooth muscle
The external muscle layer contains the _________ plexus. Auerbachs
The Auerbachs plexus is located in the ____________ muscle layer. External
The Auerbachs plexus regualtes ___________. Peristalis
Peristalis is regulated by the __________. Auerbachs plexus
The external muscle layer provides __________ digestion. Mechanical
The external muscle layer provides mechanical digestion and __________. Peristalis
Serosa is above the ___________. Diaphram
Serosa is above the diaphram and made of ____________ tissue. Fibrous connective
Serosa below the diaphram is in the ___________. Menentery
The stomach is a sac like portion of the ___________. Alimentary tube
The part of the alimentary tube that is sac like is the __________. Stomach
The stomach extends from the esophagus to the _________ intestine. Small
Some digestion ________ take place in the stomach. Does
The stomach serves as a __________ for food. Reservoir
Stomach is a reservior for food so that digestion takes place ________. Gradually
Folds of the gastric mucosa that are present when the stomach is empty are called _________. Rugae
Rugae is present in the gastric mucosa when _______________. The stomach is empty
The glands of the stomach are called ___________. Gastric pits
Gastric pits are the glands of the ___________. Stomach
Gastric pits secrete ___________. Gastric juice
Gastric juice is the secretion of the ________. Gastric pits
Mucous cells secrete _______. Mucus
Mucus is secreted by ___________ cells. Mucous
Mucous cells secrete mucus to help protect the __________ mucosa. Gastric
Chief cells secrete_____________. Pepsinogen
Pepsinogen is secreted by _________ cells. Chief
Pepsinogen is an inactive form of the enzyme _________. Pepsin
An inactive form of pepsin is called _________. Pepsinogen
Parietal cells secrete _____________. Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by ____________. Parietal cells
Hydrochloric acid ___________ pepsin. Activates
Pepsin is activated by ___________ acid. Hydorchloric
G cells secrete __________. Gastrin
Gastrin is secreted by ___________. G cells
G cells secrete gastrin when _________ enters the stomach. Food
When food enters the stomach G cells secrete ________. Gastrin
Hydrolic acid is the _________ that kills most of the microorganisms that enter the stomach. Gastric juice
The part of gastric juice that digests proteins to polypeptidesis the enzyme ________. Pepsin
Secretion of gastric juice may begin with the sight or smell of ________. Food
Mechanical digestion in the stomach is the function of the __________ layer. External muscle
The _________ sphincter is located at the junction of the pylorus of the stomach and the dueodenum of the small intestine. Pyloric
When the pyloric sphincter contracts, it prevents the ________ of food from the dueodenum to the stomach. Backup
The liver is located just below the __________. Diaphram
The liver is located in the upper right and center of the_____________. Abdominal cavity
The functional unit of the liver is called a liver _________. Lobule
The liver lobule is made of liver cells and the large capillaries called _________. Sinusoids
Between ___________ are branches of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile ducts. Liver lobules
The digestive function of the liver is the production of __________. Bile
Bile contains bile salts that emulsify _______. Fats
Bile leaves the liver through the ________ duct. Hepatic
The hepatic joins the __________ duct of the gallbladder. Cystic
When the hepatic duct joins the cystic duct of the gallbladder it forms the __________ duct. Common bile
The common bile duct carries bile to the dueodenum of the __________ intestine. Small
Bilirubin and excess chloresterol are transported to the intestines to be eliminated in __________. Feces
The gallbladder is located on the undersurface of the ________ lobe of the liver. Right
The gallbladder stores and concentrates ______. Bile
The hormone _______ stimulates production of bile by the liver. Secretin
The hormone ____________ stimulates contraction of the gallbladder. Chloecystokinin
The pancreas is located in the ___________ abdominal cavity. Upper
The pancreas is located between the curve of the duodenum and the _________. Spleen
Enzyme pancreatic juice contains several ________. Enzymes
The enzyme ____________ digests polypeptides to shorter chains of amino acids. Trypsin
The enzyme _________ digests emusified fats to fatty acids and glycerol. Lipase
The enzyme _________ digests starch to maltose. Amylase
Biocarbonate pancreatic juice contains _________ that neutralizes the hydrochloric acid. sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes hydrolic acid from the stomach to the ___________. Duodenum
The small intestine is coiled within the ____________. Abdominal cavity
The small intestine is encircled by the ______________. Large intestine
The small intestine carries food from the stomach to the ___________. Large intestine
There are _____ parts of the small intestine. Three
The common bile duct enters the _________. Duodenum
The external muscle layer is responsible for mixing chyme with digestive secretions for _________. Peristalis
The collective name for all of the nerve fibers and networks of the alimentary tube is called the __________________. Enteric nervous system
The name Peyers Patch is given to the ___________ of the small intestine. Lymph nodules
Digestion of food is completed in the ____________. Small intestine
Digestion requires _______ from the liver. Bile
Digestion requires _______ from the pancreas. Pancreatic juice
Digestion requires ________ produced by the small intestine itself. Enzymes
The crypts of Lieberkuhn are the _______ of the small intestine. Glands
The secretion of Lieberkuhn glands is stimulated by presence of food in the ________. Duodenum
Peptidases complete the digestion of peptide chains to ___________. Amino acids
Plica circulares are ____________ of the mucosa and submucosa. Large folds
Villis are the small projections of the ________. Mucosa
Microvilli are microscopic folds of the cell membrane on the __________ of each columnar cell. Free surface
Microvilli are also called the _____________. Brush border
Each villus contains a ____________. Capillary network
The absorbtion of vitamin B12 requires the __________ factor produced by the stomach lining. Intrinsic
The absorption of calcium ions requires vitamin D an __________ hormone. Parathyroid
The absorption of water, minerals, and vitamins is the function of the ___________. Colon
In the small intestine, lymph from the lacteals enters the blood in the ______ vein. Left subclavian
The elimination of undigestible materials is the function of the ________. Colon
The normal flora of the colon are the ________ that live in the colon. Bacteria
The function of the colon flora is to inhibit the growth of _____________. Pathogens
The function of the colon flora is to produce _________. Vitamin K
The defecation reflex involves the ___________ of the CNS. Spinal cord
The stretching of the _______ as peristalis of the colon pushes feces into it. Rectum
Voluntary control of defecation is provided by the __________ sphincter. External anal
The external anal sphincter ________ to close the anus. Contracts
Created by: laceychapman