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CDC 1-2

Cell & Tissues

QuestionAnswer
The basic unit of the human body. Cell
Are responsible for the entire organization of all body structures and for the continuation of life processes. The adult human body contains approximately 75 trillion cells Cells
The outermost layer of the cell. It’s flexible and protects the entire cell by sealing tiny breaks in the membrane surface whenever they occur. Cell membrane
Contains all of the living substances of the cell. It is a clear liquid that is alive with constant cellular activity Cytoplasm
Often used in discussions regarding the human body—actually refers to the activity that occurs in the cytoplasm of each cell. Metabolism
A tubular system within the cell that transports molecules. Endoplasmic reticulum
Important for the processing of proteins, both within the cell itself and in other parts of the body. Ribosomes
Located near the nucleus and responsible for distributing proteins the ribosomes processed. Golgi Aparatus
Principal source of cellular energy. Contains the enzymes involved with electron transport and the citric and fatty acid cycles. Mitochondria
Tiny membranous sacs that contain enzymes used to break down protein, carbohydrates, acids, and foreign substances that may enter the cell. Lysosomes
Found most commonly in cells of the liver and kidneys. Mainly serve to break down toxic substances. Peroxisomes
Vital for cellular reproduction. ______ distribute chromosomes, which carry deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) information to newly forming cells. Centrosomes
Tiny projections that extend outward from cell surfaces. Responsible for cell movement and the movement of cell products. Cilia and flagella
Membranous sacs that vary in size. _____ are actually an extension of the cell membrane that folds inward into the cytoplasm. Vesicles
______ are responsible for cell contraction. Microfilaments
Located near the center of the cell. It’s responsible for directing all cellular activity, serving as the “brain” of the cell Nucleus
The process of the nucleus dividing. Mitosis
The first sign that mitosis is occurring is the appearance of chromosomes. _____ contain the DNA and protein molecules that give the cell its specific characteristics Prophase
Chromosomes line up in an orderly fashion and prepare to divide. Metaphase
The chromosomes actually divide and move apart from each other. Anaphase
The divided chromosomes change in shape and size and a new nucleus forms around each set to complete the cycle. Two new cells have now been created. Telophase
The division of the contents of cytoplasm. It begins during anaphase and continues through telophase. Cytoplasmic Division
Is simply the continuation of cell growth from the time it becomes a new cell until mitosis occurs again. Interphase
A complicated process that is best explained as the distinction of cell characteristics Cell differentation
______ serve as an internal cell “skeleton” that helps maintain the shape of a cell. Microtubules
Created by: jhey33