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Respiratory System8

Review for the test

Respiration The entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and body cells.
Internal Respiration It is respiration between the blood and the tissue.
External Respiration Respiration between the alveoli and the blood.
Ventilation The movement of air into and out of the lungs.(Breathing)
Upper Respiratory Organs Consist of the nose, nasal cavity, and the pharynx.
Lower respiratory organs Consist of the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree and the lungs.
Nose An entrance for air, in which air is filtered by coarse hairs inside the nostrils.
Nostrils Opening of the nose,lined with hair which filter out air.
Nasal Cavity A space posterior to the nose.
Nasal septum Divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves medially.
Nasal conchae Increase surface area of nasal mucous membrane.
Mucous Membrane/mucous Warms, moistens, and cleanses air.
Paranasal sinuses Air filled cavities located within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones that open into the nasal cavity. They reduce the weight of the skull and affect the quality of voice.
Pharynx tube like structure that extends from the nasal cavity to the esophagus. A pathway for air and food. It also aids in producing sound for speech.
Larynx Houses the vocal cords. IT is superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharynx. It also helps keep particles from entering the trachea.
True vocal cords make sound. while breathing they are relaxed.
False vocal cords do not make sound. while swallowing they close off the glottis.
Glottis a Triangular shaped opening to the larynx. WHILE BREAthing the glottis is a slit.
Epiglottis flap like structure that covers the opening to the larynx to prevent food and fluid from entering trachea. while swallowing it closes the glottis
Trachea Its anterior to the esophagus. it is composed of 20 cartilaginous c shape rings and it branches into left and right bronchi.
Inner wall of trachea it is lined with ciliated mucous membrane with many goblets cell that serve to trap incoming particles.
Bronchial tree the branches are right and left primary bronchi.
Primary bronchi it subdivides until bronchioles give rise to the alveolar ducts which terminate in alveoli.
Lungs are soft, spongy, cone shaped. They are separated medially by the mediastinum and are enclosed by the diaphragm and thoracic cage.
Left lung 2 lobes
Right lung 3 lobes
Visceral pleura is attached to the lung
Parietal pleura is lines the thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity a space between the visceral and parietal pleura. serous fluid lubricates it
Alveoli microscopic air sac where gas exchange occurs.
Surfactant keeps the alveoli from collapsing
Inspiration Breathing in. During it the Diaphragm contracts, the volume increases, and the pressure decreases.
Expiration breathing out. during it the diaphragm relaxes, the volume decreases, and the pressure increase.
Brainstem Contains the respiratory center, which controls breathing.
Medulla oblongata Contains the rhythmicity center
Pons Contains the pneounotaxic center
Respiratory Membrane Consist of the epithelial cells of the alveolis, the endothelial cells of the capillary, and the 2 fused basement membranes of these layers.
Diffusion moving from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
Total pressure the pressure in a mixture of ideal gases, sum of each gas' partial pressure
Oxygen diffuses into blood Partial pressure of oxygen is higher in the alveolar air than in the capillary blood
Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood and into the alveolis partial pressure of it is grater in the blood than the in the alveolar air
Oxyhemaglobin 98% of oxygen is carried in the blood bound to the hemoglobin of red blood cells producing this
Carbaminohemaglobin When carbon dioxide binds to hemoglobin
Body Releases more oxygen concentration of carbon dioxide increases, blood become more acidi, and blood temperature increase.
Hypoxia a deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissue
Bicarbonate How most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
Created by: Lalo1493



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