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Essentials of A&E

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology-Chapter 3 & 4

TermRefers to
Nucleus The control center of a cell because of the genes and chromasomes it contains. Also contains the nucleolus. Not found in red blood cells.
Cell Membrane Outermost boundary of a cell, made of phospholipids, protein, and cholesterol. Is selectively permeable and allows certain substances to enter or leave.
Cytoplasm A watery solution of minerals, organic molecules, and gases that is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Cell The smallest living subunit of a multicellular organism.
Plasma Membrane Another name for cell membrane.
Phospholipids Permit lipid-soluble materials to easily enter or leave the cell by diffusion through the cell membrane.
Cholesterol Decreases the fluidity of the membrane, making it more stable.
Proteins Some form pores to permit passage of materials; some are carrier enzymes that help susbstances enter cellls; some are antigens; some are receptor sites for hormones.
Antigens Markers that identify the cells of an individual as "self".
Selectively Permeable Certain substances are permitted to pass through and others are not.
Chromatin Long threads of the Chromasomes usually not visible.
Gene The genetic code for one protein.
DNA Genetic code for the characteristics and activities of the cell.
Organelles Intracellular structures, often bounded by their own membranes that have specific roles in cellular functioning.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Organelle that functions as a passageway for transport of materials within the cell and synthesis of lipids.
Ribosomes Organelles that are a site for the synthesis of protein.
Golgi Apparatus Organelle for synthesis of carbohydrates and the packaging of materials for secretion from cell.
Mitochondria Organelle that is the site of aerobic cell respiration-ATP production.
Lysosomes Organelles that contain enzymes to digest ingested material or damaged tissue.
Centrioles Organelle that organizes the spindle fibers during cell division.
Cilia Organelle that sweeps material across the cell surface.
Flagellum Organelle that enables a cell to move.
Microvilli Organelle that increases a cell's surface area for absorption.
Aerobic Oxygen requiring.
Diffusion The movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to one of lesser concentration.
Concentration Gradient The relative amounts of substance on either side of a membrane.
Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane or barrier.
Facilitated Diffusion Movement of molecules through a membrane by carrier and transporter enzymes.
Active Transport Movement of molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration (requires energy ATP).
Filtration Movement of water and dissolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure (blood pressure).
Phagocytosis A moving cell engulfs something.
Pinocytosis A stationary cell engulfs something.
Blood Pressure Created by the pumping of the heart.
Solutes Dissolved substances.
Isotonic A solution with the same salt concentration as in cells.
Hypotonic A solution with a lower salt concentration than in cells.
Hypertonic A solution with a higher salt concentration than in cells.
Double Helix The shape of the double strand of nucleotides of DNA.
Genetic Code The sequence of arrangement of the four nitrogenous bases Adenine, Thymine,Guanine, and Cytosine.
Codon The code for a single amino acid consisting of three (triplet) bases.
RNA The other nucleic acid required to transcribe the genetic code in DNA into proteins.
Stem Cell An unspecialized cell that may develop into several different kinds of cells.
Mitosis The repair or replacement of damaged or dead cells.
Stages of Mitosis Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokenesis.
Prophase The chromosomes coil up and become visible short rods, the nuclear membrane disappears and the centrioles move toward opposite poles of the cell and organize spindle fibers.
Metaphase The pairs of chromatids line up along the equator of the cell, the centromere of each pair is attached to a spindle fiber. The centromeres divide.
Anaphase Each chromatid is now considered a separate chromosome. (two sets). The spindle fibers pull the chromosomes, one set toward each pole.
Telophase The sets of chromosomes reach the poles and become indistinct as the DNA uncoils to form chromatin. A nuclear membrane reforms around each set of chromosomes.
Cytokinesis The cytoplasm divides; new cell membrane is formed.
Meiosis More complex process of cell division that results in the formation of gametes.
Gametes Egg and sperm cells.
Haploid Number Half the usual number of chromosomes.
Oogenesis Meiosis that takes place in ovaries of women to form eggs.
Spermatogenesis Meiosis that takes place in the testes of men to form sperm.
Fertilization When the egg unites with the sperm.
Tranfer RNA (tRNA) Picks up specific amino acids from food protein and brings them to their proper triplets on the mRNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) The intermediary molecule between the nucleus and the ribosmes in the cytoplasm.
Anticodon A triplet on the tRNA complementary to a triplet on the mRNA.
Peptide Bonds The bond between amino acids in the formation of proteins.
Genome Total genetic information in a particular species (DNA).
Diploid Number The usual number of Chromosomes in a cell (46).
DNA Replication Enables each chromosome to make a copy of itself.
Interphase The time during which DNA replication takes place.
Tissues A group of cells with similar structure and function.
Epithelial Tissue The tissue found on external and internal body surfaces and which forms glands.
Squamous Cells Epithelial cells that are flat.
Cuboidal Cells Epithelial cells that are cube shaped.
Columnar Cells Epithelial cells that are tall and narrow.
Simple Squamous Epithelium One layer of thin, smooth, flat cells.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium Many layers of cells, surface cells flat; lower cells rounded.
Transistional Epithelium Cells A type of stratified epithelium with many layers of cells changing from rounded surface cells to flat.
Ciliated Cells One layer of columnar epithelial cells with cilia on their free surfaces.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium One layer of cube shaped cells.
Simple Columnar Epithelium Single layer of column shaped cells, taller than wide, specialized for secretion and absorption.
Glands Cell or organs that secrete something.
Glandular Epithelium Simple cuboidal cells that make up a gland whose function is secretion.
Microvilli Folds of the cell membrane on their free surfaces.
Goblet Cell Columnar cell which is unicellular and secretes mucous.
Ciliated Epithelium Columnar cells that have cilia on their free surfaces.
Unicellular One cell.
Multicellular Many cells.
Exocrine Glands Have ducts (tubes) to take secretion away from the gland to the site of its function.
Endocrine Glands Ductless glands whose secretions enter the capillaries and are circulated throughout the body.
Connective Tissue Areolar, adipose, firous, elastic tissue, blood, and bone whose common characteristic is a matrix in additon to cells.
Matrix A structural network or solution of non-living intercellular material.
Blood Consists of cells, plasma; cells are the living portion. The matrix of blood is plasma.
Hemopoietic Tissues Blood forming tissues in the red bone marrow.
Red Blood Cells (RBCs) Carry oxygen bonded to their hemoglobin.
White Blood Cells (WBCs) Destroy pathogens and provide us with the immunity to some diseases.
Platelets Prevent blood loss by causing clotting.
Areolar Tissue Loose connectvie tissue whose cells are called fibroblasts, which produce protein fibers.
Fibroblasts Cells of areolar connective tissue.
Collagen Fibers Strong protein fiber found in areolar tissue.
Elastin Fibers Elastic fibers found in areolar tissue.
Adipose Tissue The cells are called adipocytes and are specialized to store fat.
Fibrous Connective Tissue Consists mainly of parallel collagen fibers with few fibroblasts.
Elastic Connective Tissue Made up mainly of elastin fibers.
Bone Cells are called osteocytes; matrix is made of calcium salts and collagen and is strong, hard and not flexible.
Haversian Systems Precise arrangement of osteocytes, matrix and blood vessels found in the shafts of long bones.
Cartilage The protein matrix does not contain calcium salts and contains more water than bone, making it more resilient than bone. It is firm, yet smooth and flexible.
Chondrocytes Found within the cartilage matrix; contain no capillaries, so nourishment depends on diffusion.
Muscle Tissue Specialized for contraction. When contracted, they shorten, bringing about movement.
Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac.
Skeletal Muscle Voluntary muscle made up of large cylindrical cells with striations and several nuclei each; attached to bone.
Smooth Muscle Involuntary or visceral muscle made up of small tapered cells with no striations and one nucleus each.
Cardiac Muscle Branched cells with faint striations and one nucleus each.
Myocardium Cardiac muscle that forms the walls of the chambers of the heart.
Nerve Tissue Consists of nerve cells called neurons and some specialized cells found in the nervous system.
Neuron Nerve Cell
Cell Body Contains the nucleus and keeps the neuron alive.
Axon A process or a cellular extension, that carries impulses away from the cell body. Each nueron has one axon.
Dendrite A process or cellular extension that carries impulses toward the cell body. Each nueron may have several dendrites.
Synapse A small space where nuerons meet, which an electrical impulse cannot cross as it travels along the cell membranes.
Neurotransmitters Chemicals that allow impulse transmission between neurons.
Membranes Sheets of tissue that cover or line surfaces or that separate organs or parts of organs.
Nueroglia Specialized cells in the central nervous system that form myelin sheaths and other functions.
Schwann Cells Specialized cells in the peripheral nervous system that form the myelin sheaths around neurons.
Serous Membranes Sheets of simple squamous epthelium that line some closed body cavities and cover orgrans in these cavities.
Pleural Membranes Serous membranes of the thoracic cavity.
Serous Fluid A fluid that prevents friction between two layers of serous membrane.
Parietal Pericardium Lines the fibrous pericardium.
Visceral Pericardium(epicardium) On the surface of the heart muscle.
Peritoneum The serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.
Mesentery Visceral peritoneum that is folded over and covers the abdomial organs.
Mucous Membranes Line the body tracts and have openings to the environment.
Mucosa Epithelium of a mucous membrane.
Mucus Secretion by the mucous membranes that keeps the lining of epithelial cells wet so they will not dry out and die.
Superficial Fascia Connective tissue between the skin and muscle.
Periosteum Connective tissue the covers each bone and contain blood vessels that enter the bone.
Perichondrium Connective tissue that covers cartilage, contains capillaries, its only blood supply.
Synovial Connective tissue that lines joint cavities, secrete synovial fluid to prevent friction when joints move.
Deep Fascia Connective tissue that covers each skeletal muscle and anchors tendons.
Meninges Connective tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Fibrous Pericardium Connective tissue that forms a sac around the heart and is lined by the serous parietal pericardium.
Tissue A group of cells with similar structure and function.
Four Main Groups of Tissue Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nerve.
Epithelial Tissue Found on surfaces; have no capillaries; some are capable of secretion; classified as to shape of cells and number of layers of cells.
Created by: lmacon