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AP European History

Chapter 28 - Remaking Europe in the Shadow of Cold War - Betty H.

Glossary TermDefinition
Cold War The period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the mid 1940s until the early 1990s.
“baby boom” A period of greatly increased birth rate within temporal and usually geographical bounds.
buffer zone Demilitarized zones and certain restrictive easement zones and greenbelts. set up to prevent violence, protect the environment, protect residential and commercial zones from industrial accidents or natural disasters.
satellite countries A country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. Initially used to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War.
Truman Doctrine A United States foreign policy designed to contain Communism by stopping its spread to Greece and Turkey. The United States proclaimed the this on March 12, 1947.
Marshall Plan European Recovery Program (ERP). The primary plan of the United States for rebuilding the allied countries of Europe and repelling communism after World War II.
Berlin Blockade One of the first major crises of the new Cold War. The Soviet Union blocked railroad and street access to West Berlin.
Berlin Airlift, 1948-49 A massive operation using both civil and military aircraft (ultimately lasting 462 days) that flew supplies into the Western-held sectors of Berlin over the blockade. Lt. General William H. Tunner was in charge.
NATO An international organization for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty.
Warsaw Pact An organization of Central and Eastern European communist states, established on May 1, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland to counter the alleged threat from the NATO alliance.
Nuremberg Trials A series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany.
1949 Communist Revolution in China A conflict in China between the Guomindang (GMD) and the Chinese Communist Party.
Mao Zedong A Chinese Marxist military and political leader and writer, who led the Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War. Led the establishment of the People’s Republic of China.
Joseph McCarthy A Republican U.S. Senator, noted for aggressively investigating claims that there were Communist and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the federal government.
European Coal and Steel Community Was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member-states.
Treaty of Rome, 1957 Established the European Economic Community. Signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
European Economic Community EEC An organization established by the Treaty of Rome between the ECSC countries Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany, known informally as the Common Market.
Common Market A customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production.
COMECON An economic organization of communist states, an Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community.
Nikita Khruschev The leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964.
“cult of personality” A political institution in which a country’s leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Hungary Revolution of 1956 A spontaneous nationwide revolt against the Communist government of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from October 23 until November 10, 1956.
Sputnik The first artificial satellite, launched on October 4, 1957 by the Soviet Nation.
Yuri Gagarin A Soviet cosmonaut. the first human in space and the first human to orbit the Earth.
NASA An agency of the United States Government, responsible for the nation's public space program. Established on July 29, 1958.
“decolonization” The achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II.
Korean War 1950-53 A civil war between the states of North Korea and South Korea that were created out of the post-World War II Soviet and American occupation zones in Korea.
French Indo-China A federation of protectorates and one directly ruled colony in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. It consisted of Cochin China, Tonkin, Annam, Laos, and Cambodia.
Dien Bien Phu, 1954 A Vietnamese town known for its opium traffic. The region was fortified in November 1953 by the French Union force in the biggest airborne operation of the 1946-1954 First Indochina War, Operation Castor.
The Geneva Convention, 1954 Consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns.
Creation of Israel, 1948 The first in a series of armed conflicts fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors in the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict.
Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser The President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. Well-known for his Arab nationalist and anti-colonial foreign policy.
Suez Crisis 1956 A war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. The conflict pitted Egypt against Israel, the United Kingdom and France.
UN peace keepers Persons who monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed.
NAACP One of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States.
Martin Luther King Jr. A famous leader of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, and a Baptist minister. Assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968.
Elvis Presley "The King of Rock 'n' Roll." An American singer, musician and actor.
Voice of America the official international radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government.
Jackson Pollock An influential American painter and a major force in the abstract expressionist movement.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy 35th President of the United States, served from 1961 to his assassination in 1963.
Fidel Castro the current President of Cuba, led the revolution overthrowing Fulgencio Batista in 1959.
CIA An intelligence agency of the United States Government. Its primary function is obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons.
Bay of Pigs An unsuccessful United States-planned and funded attempted invasion to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis A confrontation during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States regarding the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba.
Existentialism A philosophical movement that deals with human freedom. A revolt against traditional philosophy. 'What is the nature of human freedom?'
Charles De Gaulle A French military leader and statesman who advocated the concentrated use of armored and aviation forces. During World War II, he reached the rank of Brigade.
Abstract expressionism An American post-World War II art movement, the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence and also the one that put New York City at the center of the art world
Created by: alfromcanada
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