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AP European History

Chapter 25- Modernity and the Road to War, 1890-1914-Sarah Kingstone

Glossary TermDefinition
Oscar Wilde An Irish playwright sentenced to prison for sexual relations with other men.
Havelock Ellis A British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. Wrote the book Sexual Inversion to describe the sexual relations of homosexual men, something that he did not consider to be a disease.
Max Nordau A Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. He played a major role in the World Zionist Organization and his relative fame certainly helped bring attention to the Zionist movement.
Sigmund Freud An Austrian neurologist and co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. Known for his theories of the unconscious mind, involving repression; his redefinition of sexual desire as mobile and the value of dreams as insight into unconscious desire
The Interpretation of Dreams The book introduces the Ego, and describes Freud's theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation. This was widely considered to be his most important contribution to psychology.
“modernism” Changes in the arts at the end of the nineteenth century that featured a break with realism in art and literature and with lyricism. This enabled a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.
John Dewey An American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer. Known as the father of functional psychology; he was a leading representative of the progressive movement in U.S. education during the first half of the 20th century.
Max Weber A German political economist and sociologist and one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. His major works deal with rationalization in sociology of religion and government, and he contributed to economics.
Friedrich Nietzsche A German-born philologist and philosopher. He said, “God is dead” and used multiple viewpoints in his work as a means of challenging his reader to consider various approaches toward an issue.
Antoine Becquerel A French scientist and a pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena. He was the first to prepare metallic elements from their ores and he invented a constant-current electrochemical cell.
Marie Curie A Polish-French physicist and chemist. She was a pioneer in radioactivity and identified two new chemical elements— polonium and radium.
Pierre Curie French physicist, pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. Won Nobel Prize in physics with his wife and Becquerel, for “extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena”
Max Planck A German physicist. He is considered to be the founder of quantum theory, and therefore one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century.
Albert Einstein A German-born physicist best known for the theory of relativity (mass-energy equivalence, E=mc2), he was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his 1905 explanation of the photoelectric effect and "for his services to Theoretical Physics".
Special Theory of Relativity Proposed by Albert Einstein. Stated that all uniform motion was relative, that there was no absolute and well-defined state of rest and that all observers will measure the speed of light to be the same no matter what their state of uniform linear motion.
Henri Matisse A French artist, noted for his use of color and his fluid, brilliant and original draughtsmanship as a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but principally as a painter.
Paul Cézanne A French artist and Post-Impressionist painter. He can be said to form the bridge between late 19th century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism.
Pablo Picasso A Spanish painter and sculptor. One of the most recognized figures in 20th century art, he is best known as the co-founder, along with Georges Braque, of cubism.
Anti-Semitism Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group, which can range in expression from individual hatred to institutionalized, violent persecution.
Pogroms A form of riot directed against the Jews and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. Usually these are accompanied with physical violence against the targeted people and even murder or massacre.
Alfred Dreyfus French military officer known for being the focus of the Dreyfus affair which involved the wrongful conviction for treason of the French artillery officer of Jewish faith, and the political and judicial scandal that followed until his full rehabilitation.
Emile Zola An influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France.
Magyarization A Hungarian policy aimed at maintaining the dominance of Hungarian language and culture in Hungarian-ruled regions by encouraging by forcible means people of other ethnic groups to adopt the Hungarian language, culture and identity.
Leon Pinsker A physician, a Zionist pioneer and activist, and the founder and leader of the Hovevei Zion movement.
Theodor Herzl An Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist who became the founder of modern political Zionism.
Zionism A movement that began in the late nineteenth century among European Jews to found a Jewish state.
Cecil Rhodes British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was also the colonizer of the state of Rhodesia, which was named after him. He profited greatly by exploiting Southern Africa's natural resources.
Spanish-American War, 1898 BTW Spain and the US. 1898. The US won and ended the Spanish empire in the Caribbean and Pacific. After, the Treaty of Paris, which ended the conflict, gave the US control of former Spanish colonies and control over independence of Cuba (1902)
Boer War The war between Britain and Boer (originally Dutch) inhabitants of South Africa for control of the region. Lasting between 1899 and 1902, the war convinced many British people that the empire was wrong or at least too costly to maintain.
Sino-Japanese War BTW Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan over the control of Korea .Demonstrates successful westernization and modernization in Japan since the Meiji Restoration. Shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan and a fatal blow to the Qing Dynasty.
Tsushima Straits Battle of Tsushima, fought on May 27 and May 28, 1905 took place there; due east of the north part of Tsushima and due north of Iki Island between the Japanese and Russian navies in 1905; the Russian fleet was virtually destroyed by the Japanese.
Bloody Sunday The massacre of peaceful protesters at Winters Square in St. Petersberg in 1905 that turned ordinary workers against the tsar and produced a wave of general indignation.
Georges Braque A French painter and sculptor who, with Pablo Picasso developed cubism and the cubist style, to become one of the major figures of 20th-century art.
Edvard Munch A Norwegian Symbolist painter and printmaker, and an important forerunner for Expressionistic art. He painted The Scream.
Isadora Duncan An American dancer and is considered by many to be the Mother of Modern Dance.
Igor Stravinsky Russian composer. Achieved international fame with three ballets including "The Rite of Spring". The Rite, whose premiere provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure.
Claude Debussy A French composer. Along with Maurice Ravel he is considered the most prominent figure working within the style commonly referred to as Impressionist music.
Richard Strauss A German composer of the late Romantic era, particularly noted for his tone poems and operas. He was also a noted conductor.
Arnold Schoenberg An Austrian and later American composer. Many of Schoenberg's works are associated with the expressionist movements in early 20th-century German poetry and art, and he was among the first composers to embrace atonal motivic development.
V.I. Lenin A Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Soviet Union, and the primary theorist of Leninism, a variant of Marxism.
Bolsheviks Members of the Marxist Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party which became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Known for seizing power during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and for founding the Soviet Union.
Mensheviks A faction of the Russian revolutionary movement that emerged in 1903 after a dispute between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov, both members of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party.
Millicent Garrett Fawcett A British suffragist and an early feminist. As a suffragist, she took a moderate line, but was a tireless campaigner, concentrating much of her energy on the struggle to improve women's opportunities for higher education.
Susan B. Anthony A prominent, independent and well-educated American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the women's rights movement to secure women's suffrage in the United States. She traveled all over (to Europe) in order to speak about women’s rights.
The Women’s Social and Political Union The leading militant organization campaigning for women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. It was the first group whose members were known as "suffragettes".
Emmeline Pankhurst One of the founders of the British suffragette movement. In 1889, She founded the Women's Franchise League and in 1903 she founded the Women's Social and Political Union, famous for its militancy which began in 1905.
National Insurance Act of 1911 Passed by Parliament, a foundation of modern social welfare in the UK. This provided for time-limited unemployment and medical benefits. Based on actuarial principles, it would be funded by a fixed amount each from workers, employers and the government.
Russian Revolution, 1905 A protest in St. Petersburg, the result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities was put down by armed force and unrest redoubled, October strikes ensued.
Duma Russian parliament opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but with absolute veto power from the tsar.
Pyotr Stolypin Served as Nicholas II's Prime Minister from 1906 to 1911. He became known for his heavy-handed attempts to battle revolutionary groups and for instituting the agrarian reform.
Boxer Rebellion A Chinese rebellion, 1899 to 1901 against foreign influence during the Qing Dynasty. Many were killed by the ensuing chaos. The uprising crumbled on August 14, 1900 when 20,000 foreign troops entered the Chinese capital, Peking.
Sun Yat-Sen A Chinese revolutionary and political leader, the “father of modern China”. Played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. The first provisional president of the Republic of China was founded in 1912. A uniting figure.
Qing Dynasty A dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is now northeast China. They expanded into China and the surrounding territories, to create the last Imperial dynasty of China.
B. G. Tilak An Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. Known as "Father of the Indian unrest." sparked the fire for complete independence. Considered the father of Hindu nationalism
“arms race” Describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or superior military technology in a technological escalation.
Triple Alliance Brought together Br. trade unions representing miners, railway men and transport workers. The formation of this followed a period of trade union growth and strike action and signaled a significant step towards greater unity within trade unionism.
Entente Cordiale This denotes recognition of common interests between the United Kingdom and France. The term usually denotes the formal agreement between the two countries signed on April 8, 1904.
Triple Entente The alliance formed in 1907 among the United Kingdom, France and Russia. Though not a military alliance, the alignment of the three powers, constituted a powerful counterweight to the "Triple Alliance" of Imperial Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
Morocco Crises, 1905 and 1911 Crises over colonial status of Morocco btw 1905 and 1906. The Kaiser remarked about Moroccan independence which aggravated Fr and Br. International tension caused by deployment of the Ger. gunboat to Agadir, 191 led to Br & Fr hostility toward Ger.
First Balkan War, 1912 The Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria) conquered Ottoman-held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils. Montenegro started the War by declaring war against the Ottomans on October 8, 1912.
Second Balkan War, 1913 Fought in 1913 btw Bulgaria and Greece and Serbia, with Romania and the Ottoman Empire intervening against Bulgaria. Outcome turned Serbia, into an important regional power, alarmed Austria-Hungary and indirectly provided a cause for WWI.
Alfred Nobel A Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and inventor of dynamite. He owned a major armaments manufacturer, previously an iron and steel mill. He used his enormous fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes.
Alfred von Tirpitz A German Admiral, Secretary of State of the Imperial Naval Office, the administrative branch of the Kaiserliche Marine from 1897 until 1916. He wanted to achieve world power status through naval power, while addressing domestic issues.
Dreadnoughts The United Kingdom completed this in 11 months. It carried ten 12-inch guns in 5 turrets, and was powered by revolutionary (for large ships) steam turbines. It was the first of the new breed of "all-big-gun" battleships.
Muslim League Founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent.
Young Turks A coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of Ottoman Empire. Their movement brought about the second constitutional era through a Revolution against the monarchy. The movement was initiated among military students.
Archduke Frans Ferdinand His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the Austrian declaration of war which triggered World War I.
Gavril Princip A Serb member of the Young Bosnia secret society who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. This prompted the Austrian action against Serbia that led to World War I.
“blank check” This term was also used to describe how the Kaiser of Germany told Austria-Hungary officials that they could deal with Serbia however they wanted after Serbian Nationalists assassinated the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Sir Edward Grey A Br. politician and ornithologist who became Foreign Secretary with many notable accomplishments: completion of the Entente with Rus. in 1907, the peaceful settlement of the Agadir Crisis, and leading the joint mediation for the end of the Balkan Wars.
Schlieffen Plan The Ger. plan for victory on the Western Front against Fr., was executed to near victory in the first month of WWI. A French counterattack at the Battle of the Marne, ended the German offensive and led to years of trench warfare.
Art Nouveau An international style of art, architecture and design that peaked in popularity at the beginning of the 20th century. It is described as self-consciously radical, somewhat mannered reformist chic that formed a prelude to 20th-century modernism.
Mitteleuropa The policy of the Central Powers during WWI which assumed the creation of several buffer states in Central Europe conquered from Russia. One of Germany's war aims was to create an economic sphere of German domination here.
New Woman A feminist ideal which emerged in the final decades of the 19th century in Europe and North America. It was a reaction to the role, as characterized by the so-called Cult of Domesticity, ascribed to women in the Victorian era.
Psychoanalysis Based on the work of Freud to discover connections among the unconscious parts of patients' mental processes. The goal is to liberate the patient from unconscious resistence and past patterns of relating that are not serviceable or inhibit freedom.
Suffragists Founded in 1897, many were middle class women, but some were working class women. For the 1906 UK general election, the group formed committees in to persuade local parties to select pro-suffrage candidates.
Eugenics A social philosophy which advocates the improvement of human hereditary traits through various forms of intervention. The goals have variously been to create healthier, more intelligent people, save society's resources, and lessen human suffering.
Ivan Pavlov A Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 and is known for first describing the phenomenon known as classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs.
Vaslav Nijinsky A Russian ballet dancer and choreographer of Polish origin. A gifted male dancer, he is celebrated for his virtuosity and for the depth and intensity of his characterizations. He choreographed Le Sacre du Printemps which caused a riot.
Revisionism An effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.
Soviets A council of workers in the former Soviet Union. The main form of government at all levels of post-revolutionary Russian Soviet Union.
Alfred Thayer Mahan A United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator who wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, and The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793-1812.
Positivism A philosophy developed by Auguste Comte, mid 19th century that stated that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method.
“cubism” An avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture and inspired related movements in music and literature. In artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form.
Anarchism A political philosophy centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government. Thus, it is the belief that all forms of rulership (and thus also voluntary or involuntary servitude) are undesirable and should be abolished.
Pragmatism The philosophy of what should be taken as true is that which contributes the most good over the longest course. Truth itself, is not what contributes the most good to the community, but that which contributes the most good to the individual.
Relativism This consists of theories that some element or aspect of experience or culture is relative to some other element or aspect. The term often refers to the doctrine that there are no absolute truths.
expressionism The tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect; it is a subjective art form. This is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst.
Created by: alfromcanada