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AP European History

Chapter 21-Napoleon

Glossary TermDefinition
Napoleon Bonaparte Emperor of France from 1804 to 1815. Won many battles but lost two major ones: Russia and Waterloo. Created Code Napoleonic as well as the Banque de France. A military genius, exiled twice and died on St. Helena
First Consul A position given to Napoleon by the Consulate which basically gave him complete control over France.
Concordat with Pope Pius VII, 1801 Agreement between Napoleon and the Pope giving France complete power over the Catholic Church in France in exchange for Catholicism being established as the major religion in France.
Napoleonic Code A law system that was created and is still used in France today. It made schooling mandatory for boys in the city and made religious and house keeping studies mandatory for women. Men had power, few Women Rights.
Hundred Days The period in 1815 when Napoleon returned from exile, summoned an army and supporters, took over the crown and went to War at Waterloo.
Battle of Waterloo Prussia and British troops succeed in defeating Napoleon, after ward he was exiled to St. Helena.
Congress of Vienna Was concerned with determining the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars. It basically restored the power of conservatism after 1815.
Klemens von Metternich An Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. A key figure at the Congress of Vienna and a strong conservative.
Robert Castlereagh This British prime minister at the Congress of Vienna. He believed in the theory of the "Balance of Power"
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand ___________, an aristocrat and former bishop who had embraced the French Revolution, served as Napoleon's foreign minister, then helped engineer the emperor's overthrow, and undertook the task of ensuring the status of France at the Congress of Vienna.
Conservatism This political doctrine justified the restoration of traditional rulers
Wesleyans or Methodists Preached a very emotional, austere and personal “method” of religion. Led by John Wesley.
Peterloo The massacre of Luddites protesting in St. Peters field, 400 injured and 11 dead. An example of conservative repression.
Six Acts Following the Peterloo massacre the British government acted to prevent any future disturbances by the introduction of this new legislation which labelled any meeting for radical reform as an overt act of treason.
Luddites Were weavers from England who protested against the industrial revolution. They feared being replaced by machines, so they burnt mills and destroyed machines.
Jeremy Bentham Father of utilitarianism. He believed in the greatest good for greatest number of people.
Utopian socialists They believed in an ideal world where everyone got along and lived in self sustained villages. Many were advocates of "free love".
Robert Owen A socialist and social reformer. Created the first union in Britain and even created his own commune.
Claude Henry de Saint-Simon A Utopian Socialist who believed in free love.
Charles Fourier A Utopian Socialist who was a big supporter of women's rights.
Romanticism Glorified nature, emotions, genius and imagination.
Lord Byron A romantic poet, ____________ acted upon his emotions by fighting and dying in the Greek war for independence.
William Wordsworth In "Tintern Abbey," one of the most beloved exemplars of romantic poetry, ____________ endowed nature with human emotions.
Mary Shelley Writer of Frankenstein, a romantic novel.
Battle of Trafalgar Large naval battle that saw the British navy defeat the French Navy. This prevented the French invasion of Britain and ensured British control of the seas.
Austerlitz Often considered his greatest victory, Napoleon fought the battle of ____________ on December 2, 1805, the first anniversary of his coronation.
Invasion of Russia, 1812 A scorched earth policy led to the downfall of Napoleon.
Borodino Although Napoleon defeated the Russians at the battle of ___________ in 1812, it proved to be a hollow victory when the Russians employed a scorched-earth strategy of defeat.
Battle of Leipzig Russia, Prussia, Britain, Austria and Sweden teamed against France. Often called the Battle of the Nations. Led to Napoleon's first abdication.
Island of Elba Where Napoleon was sent after he abdicated the first time.
Louis XVIII Became the first King of France since Louis XVI after the abdication of Napoleon for the first time.
Sir Robert Peel Revised the British criminal code, introduced a municipal police force in London (Bobbies), and passed laws allowing trade union organization.
Whigs Liberal reformers
Liberalism Based on Locke’s ideals, was open and supported enlightenment but condemned the French Revolution for its violence. It believed in an expanded vote and was favoured by the middle class.
Nationalism Renewed sense of pride in one’s country. Was greatly feared by monarchs because they were afraid they could loose control over the different parts of their countries.
Socialism Advocates a reorganization of society to overcome the new tensions created by industrialization. Emphasizes the need to restore social harmony through communities based on cooperation rather than competition. Often associated with the working class.
Frederick William III After a crushing defeat at the hands of Napoleon in 1806, ___________ appointed a reform commission that recommended the abolition of serfdom and an overhaul of the army.
George Stephenson was an English mechanical engineer who designed the famous and historically important steam locomotive named "The Rocket" and is known as the "Father of Railways".
Joseph M. W. Turner An English Romantic landscape painter and watercolorist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. His paintings often depict the struggle between industrialization and nature. He painted "The Fighting Temurarie"
Eugene Delacroix The French painter ____________ chose contemporary as well as medieval scenes of great turbulence to emphasize light and color. He painted “Liberty Leading the People”
Ludwig van Beethoven Famous romantic composer.
Spanish Revolts 1820 An example of the power of conservatism. Spain had a revolution and overthrew their king, but in 1823 France invaded and restored absolute powers to the King.
Italian Rebellions 1821 People demanded a constitution and independence from Austria, but Metternich succeeded in suppressing them with the Austrian army. Another example of the power of conservatism after 1815.
Decembrist Revolt 1825 Some of the Russian army refused to swear allegiance to the new Czar and this caused the revolt. They were quickly suppressed.
Monroe Doctrine Announced that the USA would no longer allow European influence in North and South America.
French Revolution of 1830 A revolt against Charles X when he tries to make the French monarchy absolute again. Leads to Louis-Philippe becoming king and a constitutional monarchy for France.
Louis-Philippe The King who replaced Charles X after the French Revolution of 1830.
Duke of Wellington General who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.
St. Helena After his final defeat in 1815, Napoleon was exiled to _______________.
Alexander I To impart spiritual substance to the calculated settlement of political affairs at the Congress of Vienna, ____________ proposed a Holy Alliance that called on divine assistance in upholding religion, peace, and justice.
Edmund Burke The original British critic of the French Revolution, ___________, inspired many of the conservatives who followed.
Caspar David Friedrich The paintings by the German artist _____________ captured the romantic fascination with the sublime power of nature with melancholic figures that looked lost in its vastness.
Continental System A prohibition of trade with Great Britain by France and its dependent states and allies.
Charles X This king's increasingly repressive policies sparked another revolution in France in 1830.
Created by: alfromcanada