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Neuro Terms

Neruological Terminology

Agnosia The inability to interpret information
Agraphesthesia The inability to recognize symbols, letters or numbers traced on the skin
Agraphia The inability to write due to a lesion within the brain
Akinesia The inability to initiate movement; commonly seen in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Aphasia The inability to communicate or comprehend due to damage to specific areas of the brain.
Apraxia The inability to perform purposeful learned movements, although there is no sensory or motor impairments
Astereognosis The inability to recognize objects by sense of touch
Ataxia The inability to perform coordinated movements
Athetosis A condition that presents with involuntary movements combined with instability of posture. Peripheral movements occur without central stability
Bradykinesia Movement that is very slow
Broca's aphasia An infarct to a specific area of the frontal lobe that produces the inability to verbally communicate. Speech is difficult, but comprehension is usually functional or normal
Chorea Movements that are sudden, random, and involuntary
Clonus A characteristic of an upper motor neuron lesion; involuntary alternating spasmotic contraction of a muscle precipitated by a quick stretch reflex.
Constructional apraxia The inability to reproduce geometric figures and designs. This person is visually unable to analyze how to perform a task.
Decerebrate rigidity A characteristic of a corticospinal lesion at the level of the brainstem that results in extension of the trunk and all extremities.
Decorticate rigidity A characteristic of a corticospinal lesion at the level of the diencephalon where the trunk and lower extremities are posititoned in extension and the upper extremities are positioned in flexion
Diplopia Double vision
Dysarthria Slurred and impaired speech due to a motor deficit of the tongue or other muscles essential for speech.
Dysdiadochokinesia The inability to perform rapidly alternating movements.
Dysmetria The inability to control the range of movement and the force of a muscular activity.
Dysphagia The inability to properly swallow.
Dystonia Closely related to athetosis, however there is larger axial muscle involvement rather than appendicular muscles.
Emotional lability A characteristic of a right hemisphere infarct where there is an inability to control emotions and outbursts of laughing and crying that are inconsistent with the situation
Expressive aphasia A condition due to a lesion within the brain where language and communication skills such as reading, writing, and speaking are impaired.
Global aphasia A type of aphasia that presents with both expressive and receptive deficits. Prognosis for recovery of speech is usually poor. The patient's speech is nonfluent and comprehension is significantly impaired.
Hemiballism An involuntary and violent movement of a large body part.
Hemiparesis A condition of weakness on one side of the body.
Hemiplegia A condition of paralysis on one side of the body.
Homonymous hemianopsia The loss of the right or left half of the field of vision in both eyes.
Ideational apraxia The inability to formulate an initial motor plan and sequence tasks where the proprioceptive input necessary for movement is impaired.
Ideomotor apraxia A condition where a person plans a movement or task but cannot volitionally perform it. Automatic movement may occur, however, a person cannot impose additional movement on command.
Kinesthesia The ability to perceive the direction and extent of movement of a joint or body part.
Neglect The inability to interpret stimuli on the left side of the body due to a lesion on the right frontal lobe of the brain.
Perseveration The state of repeatedly performing the same segment of a task or repeatedly saying the same word/phrase without purpose.
Proprioception The ability to perceive the static position of a joint or body part.
Receptive aphasia The inability to comprehend normal speech
Rigidity A state of severe hypertonicity where a sustained muscle joint contraction does not allow for any movement at a specified joint.
Synergy A result of brain damage that presents with mass movement patterns that are primitive in nature and coupled with spasticity.
Wernicke's aphasia An infarct to a specific area of the temporal lobe that severely affects the patient's level of comprehension. The person is usually able to verbalize, but is frequently nonfunctional.
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