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Chapter 15

The Respiratory System

The nasal mucosa is made of __________ epithelial tissue. Ciliated
The nasal mucosa is ciliated epithelial tissue with__________ cells. Goblet
Goblet cells in the nasal mucosa _______ mucus. Secrete
The two functions of the __________ are to warm the incoming air and add moisture. Nasal mucosa
Inhaled air is _________ by nasal mucosa. warmed
The bones that increase the surface of the nasal mucosa are the ________. Conche
The nasopharynx is located behind the ________. Nasal cavities
The nasopharynx is lined with _________. Ciliated epithelium
The oropharynx is located behind the ________. Mouth
The oropharynw is lined with ___________. Sratified squamous epithelium
The laryngopharynx opens into the larynx and the __________. Esophagus
The part of the pharynyx that is an air passageway only, is the __________. Nasopharynx
The parts of the pharynx that are passageways for both air and food are the oropharynx and the ___________. Larynpharynx
During swallowing, the nasohparynx is covered by the ____________. Soft palate
The soft palate covers the nasopharynx during ________. Swallowing
During swallowing, the larynx is covered by the __________. Epiglottis
The epiglottis covers the larynx during _________. Swallowing
The palatine tonsils are _________ tissue. Lymphatic.
The palatine tonsils are located on the lateral walls of the ____________. Oropharynx
The adenoid is __________ tissue on the wall of the nasopharynx. Lymphatic
The general purpose of the tonsils is to ___________. Destroy pathogens
The eustachian tubes open into the ___________. Nasopharynx
The airway of the larynx is lined with _________ epithelial tissue. Ciliated
The trachea is lined with ___________ epithelial tissue. Ciliated
Mucus and pathogens are swept out ot the larynx and trachea by ____________. Ciliated epithelial tissue.
The larynx is an _________ passage. Air
The larynx is an air passage between the laryngopharynx and the ___________. Trachea
The larynx contains __________ cords. Vocal
The vocal cords fold and vibrate when air is ___________. Exhaled
The speech areas are located in the left hemisphere of the ___________. Cerebrum
The airway of the larynx is kept open by ____________. Cartilage
The trachea is kept open by cartilage in the shape of a ____. C
Both the trachea and the larynx are kept open by _____________. Cartilage
The trachea extends from the larynx to the __________. Bronchial tree
The trachea and all respiratory passages are collectively called the ______________. Bronchial tree
The bronchioles ___________ from bronchi. Differ
The bronchioles differ from bronchi in that there is no cartilage in their walls and they may _________. Close
The ___________ can constrict or dilate. Bronchioles
The bronchioles can constrict or dilate because of ____________ tissue in their walls. Smooth muscle
The primary bronchus branches into _____ secondary bronchi. Three
The left primary bronchus branches into _____. Two
The chest cavity is lined with ___________. Serous membrane
The serous membrane that lines the chest cavity is called the _______________. Parietal pleura
The serous membrane that covers the lungs is the ____________. Viseral pleura
The parietal pleura lines the __________. Chest cavity
The viseral pleura covers the ___________. Lungs
During breathing, friction between the pleural membranes is reduced by ____________. Serous fluid
Serous fluid reduces friction between the pleural membranes during ____________. Breathing
The alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries are all made of ___________ epithelium tissue. Simple squamous
Simple squamous epithelium tissue in the pulmonary capilllaries and the alveoli permits the ______________ of gases. diffusion
Exchange of gases is possible in the lungs because the alveoli are lined with ___________. Tissue fluid
Gases can dissolve in ___________. Tissue fluid
Normal inhalation of the alveoli is possible because pulmonary surfactant ____________ the surface tension within alveoli. Decreases
The diaphram is mad of __________ muscle. Skeletal
During inhalation the diaphram moves _________. Downward
The diaphram __________ during inhalation and moves downward. Contracts
The diaphram __________ during exhalation. Relaxes
The diaphram relaxes during exhalation and moves ___________. Upward
The diaphram contracts during ____________. Inhalation
The diaphram relaxes during ____________. Exhalation
During inhalation, the chest cavity is expanded top to bottom by the contraction of the _____________. Diaphram
The external intercostal muscles contribute to _____________. Inhalation
During inhalation the external intercostal muscles pull the ribs _____________. Up and out
The internal intercostal muscles contribute to ____________. Forced exhalation
Forced exhalation requires the internal intercostal muscles, which pulls the ribs __________. Down and in
The internal intercostal muscles bring about inhalation in the ___________. Diaphram
The elastic connective tissue of the lungs contributes to ___________. Exhalation
Normal exhalation is a __________ process. Passive
Normal exhalation depends on the ____________ tissue of the lungs. Elastic connective
The air pressure outside the body is called _____________ pressure. Atmospheric
The air pressure within the bronchial tree is called ____________ pressure. Intrapulmonic
During inhalation, intrapulmonic pressure _________. Decreases
During inhalation, when intrapulmonic pressure decreases, air moves into the __________. Lungs
During exhalation, intraplumonic pressure increases, and air moves ________ the lungs. Out of
During breathing, the pleural membranes are kept together by the presence of ___________. Serous fluid
In external respiration, oxygen ____________ from the alveoli to the blood. Diffuses
In external respiration, carbon dioxide diffusses from the blood to the ____________. Alveoli
In external respiration, the PO2 in alveoli is __________. High
In external respiration, the PO2 in the surrounding blood is ________. Low
In external respiration, the PCO2 in the alveoli is __________. Low
In external respiration, the PCO2 in the surrounding blood is _______. High
The parietal pressure of a gas in air or a body fluid is a measure of the __________ of the gas. Concentration
In internal respiration,___________ diffuses from the blood to the tissues. Oxygen
In internal respiration, ___________ diffuses from the tissues to the blood. Carbon dioxide.
In internal respiration, the PO2 in the blood is high and the PO2 in the tissues is _______. Low
In internal respiration, the PCO2 in the blood is __________, and the POC2 in the tissues is High. Low
Most oxygen is transported to tissues bonded to ___________ in RBCs. Hemoglobin
The mineral that is essential for oxygen transport is _________. Iron
Iron is the mineral essential for oxygen transport because it is part of __________. Hemoglobin
Oxygen is released from hemoglobin when the ____ of the surrounding tissues is low. PO2
Oxygen is released from hemoglobin when the _____ of the surrounding tissues is high. PCO2
Most carbon dioxide is transported in the _______. Blood
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in the form of ___________. Bicarbonate ions
Bicarbonate ions are found in the __________. Plasma
Bicarbonate ions are in the plasma are the form of blood transport of ____________. Carbon dioxide
The CNS respiratory centers are located in the medulla and _______. Pons
The inspiration and experation centers are located in the ___________ of the brain. Medulla
The apneustic and pheumotaxic centers are located in the ________ of the brain. Pons
Nerve impulses that stimulate contraction of the respiratory muscles come from the __________ center in the medulla. Inspiratory
The __________ nerves are motor to the diaphram. Phrenic
The phrenic nerves carry motor impulses to the __________. Diaphram
The function of the apneustic center is to _________ inhalation. Prolong
The function of the pneumotaxic center is to help bring about _____________. Exhalation
The strongest stimulus to increase the breathing rate is higher level of ____________ in the blood. Carbon dioxide
A higher level of carbon dioxide in the blood makes the blood more ___________. Acidic
A higher level of caron dioxide in the blood will decrease the _____ of the blood. pH
The chemoreceptors are located in the _____________ body. Carotid & aortic
Chemoreceptors detect the decrease in the _________ level. Blood oxygen
The chemorecptors that detect and increase of carbon dioxide level are located in the ____________. Medulla
Hypoxia is a stimulus for the breathing rate to __________. Increase
Hypoxia is a stimulus for the breathing rate to increase in order to ___________. Inhale more oxygen.
The general cause of respiratory acidosis is an ___________ in breathing rate. Decrease
Respiratory acidosis results in more ___________ in the body. Carbon dioxide
The general cause of respiratory alkalosis is an __________ in breathing. Increase
Respiratory alkalosis results in __________ carbon dioxide in the body. Less
A severe respiratory acidosis will cause the blood pH to fall below __________. 7.35
A severe respiratory alkalosis will cause the blood pH to rise above __________. 7.45
To compensate for metabolic acidosis, the respiratory rate will increase in order to exhale more ____________. Carbon dioxide
To compensate for metabolic acidosis, when you exhale more carbon dioxide you __________ the blood pH. Raise
To compensate for metabolic alkalosis the respiratory rate will decrease to ___________ more carbon dioxide. Retain
To compensate for metabolic alakalosis, the respiratory rate decreases, and _________ the blood pH. Lowers
The limit of respiratory compensation for an ongoing metabolic pH imbalance is approximately _________. 75%
Created by: laceychapman



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