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Chapter 18

The Urinary System

QuestionAnswer
The kidneys form what? Blood plasma
The kidneys excrete waste products such as what? Urea
The kidneys regulate the _________ content of the blood. Electrolyte
The kidneys regulate the electrolyte content of the blood by excreting or conserving __________. Minerals
The kidneys are located _________ to the spine. Lateral
The kidneys are located lateral to the spine, and _________ to the diaphram. Inferior
The kidneys are located lateral to the spine, inferior to the diaphram, and ________ to the peritoneum. Posterior
The kidneys are ________, which mean they are behind the peritoneum. Retroperitoneal
The kidneys are located inferior to the ________. Diaphram
The kidneys are located lateral to the ________. Spine
The kidneys are located posterior to the ________. Peritoneum
The kidneys are cushioned by _________. Fat
The kineys are cushioned by fat, and are held in place by the _________. Renal fascia
The renal fascia is made of __________ tissue. Fibrous connective
What is the function of the renal fascia? To hold the kidneys in place.
A ________ extends from the kidney. Ureter
A ureter extends from the kidney to the ________. Urinary bladder
The urethra extends from the __________. Urinary bladder
The urethra extends from the urinary bladder to the ________. Exterior
The ureters take _________ from the kidneys. Urine
The ureters take urine from the kidneys to the _________. Urinary bladder
The urethra takes the urine from the __________ to the exterior. Bladder
The male urethra is enclosed by the _________. Prostate gland
The male urethra is enclosed by the prostate gland and the _________. Penis
The female urethra is __________ to the vagina. Anterior
The urinary bladder is posterior to the _________ bones. Pubic
In men, the urinary bladder is directly superior to the _________. Prostate gland
In women, the urinary bladder is _________ to the uterus.f Inferior
In women the vagina is ________ to the urethra. Posterior
In women the uterus is ________ to the urinary bladder. Superior
The outer layer of the kidney tissue is called the ________. Renal cortex
The renal cortex is the ________ layer of the kidney tissue. Outer
The inner layer of the kidney tissue is called the _________. Renal medulla
The renal medulla is the ________ layer of the kidney tissue. Inner
Renal pyramids is another name for the _________. Renal medulla
The cavity on the medial side of the kidney is called the _________. Renal pelvis
The renal pelvis is located on the ________ of the kidney. Medial side
The renal pelvis is formed by the __________ of the ureter. Expansion
The expansion of the ureter is what forms the ________. Renal pelvis
The _________ is made of renal corpuscles, and convoluted tubules. Renal cortex
In the kidney, loops of henle and collecting tubules are located in the __________. Renal medulla
The renal medulla is made of loops of henle, and __________. Collecting tubules
In the kidney, the renal pelvis has funnel-shaped extensions called _________. Calyces
In the kidney, calyces are part of the _________. Renal pelvis
In the kidney, calyces _________ the tips of the pyramids (medulla). Enclose
In the kidney the renal pelvis empties ________ into the ureter. Urine
Nephrons in the kidney form urine from __________. Blood plasma
Urine is formed from blood plasma by the _________ of the kidneys. Nephron
The two major parts of the _________ are the renal corpuscle and renal tubule. Nephron
The purpose of urine formation is to excrete _________. Waste products
The purpose of urine formation is to excrete waste products, and to _________ the volume and pH of the blood. Regulate
A __________ consists of a glomerulus and bowmans capsule. Renal corpuscle
A glomerulus is a network of ________. Capillaries
The glomerulus is a network of capillaries and is surrounded by a __________. Bowmans capsule
A bowmans capsule surrounds the ________. Glomerulus
The bowmans capsule has ______ layers. Two
The layer of the bowmans capsule that is very permeable is the _________ layer. Inner
The inner layer of the bowmans capsule is made of cells called _________. Podocytes
Podocytes of the inner layer of the bowmans capsule is what makes the layer very _________. Permeable
In the kidneys, the process of ________ takes place from the glomerulus to the bowmans capsule. Filtration
The energy for renal filtration is provided by ________. Blood pressure
In the process of glomerular filtration, water, waste products, and nutrients may become part of _________. Renal filtrate
In the process of glomerular filtration, blood cells, and large proteins __________ become part of renal filtrate. Will not
The process of glomerular filtration is selective in terms of the _________ of the materials in the blood. Size
In the kidneys, the processes of reabsorption and secretion take place in the _________ portion of the nephron. Renal tubule
In the kidney, the renal tubules are surrounded by the ___________. Peritubular capillaries
In the kidneys, peritubular capillaries surround the __________. Renal tubules
In the kidney, __________ takes place from the renal tubule to the peritubular capillaries. Tubular reabsorption
The general purpose of tubular reabsorption is to return useful materials to the ________. Blood
In tubular reabsorption, glucose is reabsorbed by the process of _________ transport. Active
In tubular reabsorption, amino acids are reabsorbed by the process of ________ transport. Active
In tubular reabsorption, vitamins are reabsorbed by the process of ________ transport. Active
In tubular reabsorption, positive ions are reapsorbed by the process of ________ transport. Active
In tubular reabsorption, negative ions are reabsorbed by the process of ________ transport. Passive
In tubular reabsorption, water is reabsorbed by the process of ________. Osmosis
In tubular reabsorption, small proteins are reabsorbed by the process of ________. Pinocytosis
In the proximal convoluted tubule, the surface area of the cells is increased by the presence of _________. Microvilli
The maximum amount of glucose that can be reabsorbed by the kidney tubules is called the __________. Threshold level
The threshold level of the kidney tubules means the ________ amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed. Maximum
In the process of tubular secretion, substances are moved from the _________ to the filtrate. Peritubular capillaries
Tubular secretion may include the nitrogenous waste product ________. Creatinine
In the process of tubular secretion, creatinine and __________ may be excreted. Hydrogen ions
The renal artery is a branch of the _________. Abdominal aorta
The renal vein carries blood to the __________. Inferior vena cava
There are ____ sets of capillaries in the kidneys. Two
The peritubular capillaries and glomeruli capillaries are located in the __________. Kidneys
In the kidneys, filtration takes place in the _________. Glomeruli
In the glomerulus, blood pressure is _________. High
In the glomerluls, blood pressure is high because the efferent arteriole has a __________ diameter than the afferent. Smaller
In the kidneys. the hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water is ______. ADH
The effect of ADH is to increase the reabsorption of _________. Water
In the kidneys, the hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium ions and water is ________. Aldosterone
In the kidneys the hormone that increases the excretion of sodium ions and water is _______. ANP
In the kidneys, the hormone that increases the excretion of potassium ions is ___________. Aldosterone
In the kidneys, the hormone that increases the reabsorption of calcium ions is ________. PTH
In the kidneys, two hormones that increase the reabsorption of _________ are aldosterone, and ADH. Water
If ADH secretion decreases, more _________ will be excreted in urine. Water
If aldosterone secretion decreases, more ________ ions will be present in urine. Sodium
If aldosterone secretion decreases, more sodium ions will be present in urine and more ________ ions will remain in the blood. Potassium
The kidneys respond to increased ________ of the blood. Acidity
The kidneys respond to the increased acidity of the blood by _________ hydorgen ions. Excreting
The kidneys respond to increased alkalinity of the blood by retaining more hydrogen ions in order to ________ the pH of blood. Lower
When the kidneys excrete hydrogen ions to regulate pH, the ions that are returned to the blood are sodium and __________. Bicarbonate
When the kidneys retain hydrogen ions to regulate pH, the ions that will be excreted in urine are _________ and bicarbonate. Sodium
The purpose of the renin-angiotension mechanism is to _________ blood pressure. Raise
The juxtagglomerular cells of the kidney secrete ________ when blood pressure decreases. Renin
When the kidneys secrete the enzyme renin it starts the process of the formation of _______. Antiotensin ll
The functions of angiotensin ll are to cause ___________. Vasoconstriction
The functions of angiotensin ll are to cause vasoconstriction and to increase the secretion of _________. Aldosterone
The kidneys secrete erythropoietin during a state of ________. Hypoxia
The function of ____________ is to stimulate the red bone marrow. Erythropoietin
Erythropietin stimulates the red bone marrow to _________ the rate of RBC production. Increase
A state hypoxia will cause the kidneys to __________ erythropietin, which will increase the rate of RBC production. Secrete
The part of the urinary bladder that expels urine is the __________. Detrusor muscle
The detrusor muscle expels _________. Urine
The external urethral sphincter is usually contracted to prevent _________ of urine. Outflow
The internal urethral sphincter is ________ tissue. Smooth muscle
The trigone is on the ________ of the urinary bladder. Floor
The trigones boundries are the _________ of the ureters and urethra. Opening
The part of CNS that is directly involved in the urination reflex is the __________. Spinal cord
The stimulus for the urination reflex is _________ of the detrusor muscle. Stretching
The effector of urination reflex is the detrusor which __________. Contracts
As part of the urination reflex, the internal sphincter __________. Relaxes
Voluntary control of the urination reflex is provided by the ____________. External urethral sphincter
The external urethral sphincter contracts to __________ urination. Prevent
Normal urinary output per 24 hours is ________. 1-2 liters
Strenuous exercise or diarrhea will tend to __________ urinary output. Decrease
The normal pH range of urine is __________. 4.6 to 8.0
The normal pH range of urine is 4.6 to 8.0 with an average of ______. 6.0
The specific gravity of urine is a measure of the __________ present in urine. Solute
The concentrating ability of the kidneys is reflected in the measurement of the ____________ of urine Specific gravity
Compared to blood or tissue fluid,urine is _______ tonic. Hyper
Hyper-tonic means it has a greater _________ of dissolved materials. Concentration
The nitrogenous waste product that comes from energy production in muscles is ________. Creatinine
The nitrogenous waste product that comes from the metabolism of nucleic acids is __________. Uric acid
If the kidneys are not functioning properly, blood levels of the nitrogenous waste product will ___________. Increase
If the kidneys are not functioning properly, blood levels if the nitrogenous waste products will increase, and urine levels will ___________. Decrease
Created by: laceychapman