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Chapter 3

Government in America

QuestionAnswer
Block Grants Broad program grants given more or less automatically to states and communities which exercise discretion in how the money is spent
Categorical Grants Grants that can be used only for specific purposes or categories of state and local spending
Cooperative Federalism Where state and the national government responsibilities are mingled and blurred like a marble cake, powers and policies are shared
Dual Federalism Where states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres of power, much like a layer cake
Elastic Clause The statement in the Constitution which says that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out its duties
Enumerated Powers Powers of Congress found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
Extradition The Constitution requires each state to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment
Federalism A system of shared power between two or more levels of government
Fiscal Federalism The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system
Formula Grants A type of categorical grant where states and local governments do not apply for a grant but are given funds on the basis of a formula
Full Faith and Credit Article IV of the Constitution requires states to provide reciprocity toward other states’ public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings
Gibbons v. Ogden The 1824 Supreme Court case which further expanded Congress’ power to regulate interstate and international commerce by defining commerce very broadly to incorporate every form of commercial activity
Implied Powers Powers beyond Congress’ enumerated powers which ensure that it can carry out its duties
Intergovernmental relations Used to describe the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments
McCulloch v. Maryland The 1819 Supreme Court case which established the supremacy of the national government over the states included both enumerated and implied powers of Congress
Privileges and immunities The Constitution prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states
Project Grants Categorical grants awarded on the basis of competitive applications
Supremacy Clause Article VI of the Constitution states that the supreme law of the land is the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties
Tenth Amendment Specifies that powers not delegated to the national government are reserved for the state government or the people
Unitary Government A system where all power resides in the central government
Devolution Transferring responsibilities for policies from the federal government to state and local governments
Commerce Clause This clause has enabled Congress not only to regulate the act of commerce itself, but everything connected to it. Some examples include: Regulate working hours Outlaw child labor,Mandate product safety laws
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