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MyoSkel Review

Muscloskeletal Exam Review

What is bone made of? Osseous connective tissue
What are fetal bones made of? cartilage and fibrous tissue
The process of depositing calcium in bone and replacing cartilage is called? ossification and calcification
What are mature bone cells called? osteocytes
What are immature, bone building cells called? osteoblasts
Cells that breakdown bone and maintain bone interiors and shape are called? osteoclasts
Periosteum outer covering of bones
Compact bone hard outer shell of bone
Haversian canal canal in compact bones, hold blood vessels
Medullary cavity space in shaft of long bones
Articular cartilage cartilage at ends of long bones
Diaphysis shaft of the long bone
Epiphysis ends of developing bones
Cancellous bone inner spongy, porous bone
Trabeculae lattice work in cancellous bone
Endosteum thin membrane, lines medullary cavity
Red bone marrow is called hemopoeitic tissue because? It produces blood cells
Where is red bone marrow found? flat bones: skull, scapula, sternum, ribs ilium,and ends of long bones
What does yellow bone marrow store? fat
Where is yellow bone marrow found? shafts of adult long bones
What is the only movable bone of the skull? mandible
What is the foramen magnum> hole in base of skull (occipital bone) Spinal cord passes through it
Which bones are found at the shoulder joint? scapula, humerus, clavicle
The vertebral body is the ________ portion of the vertabra? anterior
The vertebral arch is the ________ portion of the vertebra? posterior
The process of the scapula that forms the top of the shoulder is called acromion process
The process of the proximal end of the ulna, commonly referred to as the elbow is called olecranon process
Name the 3 bones fused together to form the os coxae or "hip bone" ilium, ischium, pubic bone
The place where 2 or more bones come together is called a joint or articulation
A non movable joint is called synarthrosis
A partially movable joint is called amphiarthrosis
A fully movable join is called diarthrosis or synovial joint
What lines joints? synovial membranes
What do synovial membranes produce? synovial fluid, which cushions the joint and decreases stress and friction
ligament connective tissue that binds bones to other bones
bursa connective tissue sac of fluid at or around a joint
torticollis stiff neck
kyphosis humpback-- exaggerated thoracic curve
scoliosis lateral curvature
lordosis excessive lumbar curve--swayback
dislocation traumatic injuries to joints where bones in a joint are forcefully separated. May or may not involve rupture of ligaments
subluxation bones in joint move out of alignment, but do not dislocate
tendon attaches muscle to bone
What is a compound or open fracture The bone breaks through the skin
What is a simple or closed fracture does not break through skin
What is a spiral fracture Break spirals around bone. Seen in skiing accidents and abuse
What is a comminuted fracture A break in multiple pieces, shattered
Putting fractured bone back into alignment is called reduction
When putting bones back into alignment without surgery it is called closed reduction
When putting bones back into alignment requires surgery it is called open reduction
Holding bones in alignment is called immobilization
When hardware must be used to keep bones together it is called internal fixation
What is the abbreviation for and "internal fixation" ORIF--open reduction, internal fixation
The disease characterized by a decrease in bone density from loss of calcium salts and causing thinning and weakness of the bone is called osteoporosis
A bacterial infection of the bone and bone marrow is called osteomyelitis
What is the most common cause of osteomyelitis open/compound fracture
What is rickets bending/bowing of bones from vitamin D deficiency
What is osteoarthritis inflammation of joint caused by thinning of articular cartilage, thickened synovial fluid, enlarged painful joints
What is rheumatoid arthritis systemic inflammatory disease, autoimmune, causes inflammation and damage to joint, deformity and impaired movement
What is gout inflammation of joint from uric acid crystals in joint. A metabolic disorder
What is an arthroscopy a visual exam of joint using a scope
What is arthrography injection of dye into the joint for imaging
What is myelography injection of dye into spinal canal to visualize the spinal cord
Created by: mlarke



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