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GE 258 Exam 9.1

GE 258 9.1 Exam Revi

QuestionAnswer
the "language" of the nervous system neurotransmitters
the means by which each neuron communicates with others to process and send messages to the rest of the body neurotransmitters
T/F: the sodium potassium pump is an active transport mechanism? true
potassium ions are released ___ of the cell inside
sodium ions are released ___ of the cell outside
both sodium and potassium ions are moving from an area of ___ concentration to and area of ___ concentration high, low
sodium and potassium ions are moving ___ their concentration gradient against
the sodium-potassium pump needs ___ in order to work ATP
during one cycle of the sodium-potassium pump, sodium and potassium pump binds to move: three sodium and two potassium
Although repolarization restores resting electrical conditions, it does not restore resting ionic conditions. what does? sodium-potassium pump
a junction that mediated information transfer from one neuron to the next or from a neuron to an effector cell synapse
synapses that are specialized to allow the flow of ions between neurons electrical synapse
synapses that are specialized for release and reception of chemcial neurotransimtters chemical synapse
this synapse contain protein channels, made of connexin subunits, that intimately connect the cytoplasm of adjacent neurons and allow ions and small molecules to flow directly from one neuron to the next electrical synapse
this type of synapse has two parts: (1) a knoblike axon terminal of presynaptic neurons containing synaptic vesicles with thousands of neurotransmitter molecules and (2) a neurotransmitter receptor region of the membrane of a dentrite or the cell body chemcial synapses
in this synapse a synaptic cleft always separate presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes chemcial synapses
nurons joined this way are said to be electrically coupled and transmission across these synapses is very rapid electraicl synapses
transimission of signals across these synapses is a chemial event that depends on the release, diffusion, and receptor binding of neurotransmitter molecules chemcial synapses
less common varitey of synapses electrical synapses
the principal way neurons send signals over long distance is by generating and propagating action potentials
for the most part what kinds of cells can generate action potential neurons and muscle cells
generating an action potential involves: three consecutive but overlapping changes in membrane permeability resulting from the opening and closing of voltage-gated ions channels, all induced by depolarization of the axon membrane
which of the following CNS and PNS do not regenerate? CNS
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord which occupy the dorsal body cavity
The ___ is the integrating and command center of the nervous system CNS
The ___ interprets sensory input and dictates motor responses based on past experience, relfexes, and current condition CNS
The ___ is the part of the nervous system that consist mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord PNS
___ nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord spinal
___ nerves carry impulses to and from the brain cranial
The PNS has two functional subdivisions which are: sensory, or afferent division & motor, or efferent division
consist of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors located throughout the body sensory, or afferent division
transmit impulses from the CNS to effector organs, which are the muscles and gland motor, or efferent division
the motor/efferent division has two main parts somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system
nervous system that conduct impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles somatic nervous system
often referred to as the voluntary nervous system because it allows conscious control of the skeletal muscle somatic nervous system
nervous sytem that regulate the activities of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands autonomic nervous system
often referred to as the involuntary nervous system autonomic nervous system
composed of somatic motor fibers somatic nervous system
composed of visceral motor nerve fibers autonomic nervous system
the autonomic nervous is further divided into two functional subdivision which are: sympathetic and parasympathetic
division of the ANS that mobilizes body systems during activities sympathetic
division of the ANS that conserves energy and promotes housekeeping funtions during rest parasympathetic
the rest and digest system of ANS parasympathetic
division of ANS that keeps body energy use as low as possible parasympathetic
the flight or fight system of ANS sumpathetic
T1-T5 organs served head and neck, heart
T2-T4 ORGANS SERVED BRONCHI AND LUNGS
T2-T5 UPPER LIMB
T5-T6 ORGANS SERVED ESOPHAGUS
T6-T10 STOMACH, SPLEEN, PANCREAS
T7-T9 LIVER
T9-T10 SMALL INTESTINE
T10-L1 KIDNEY, REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
T10-L2 LOWER LIMBS
T11-L2 LARGE INTESTINE, URETER, URINARY BLADDER
WHICH DRUG AFFECTS THE HEART NOREPINEPHRINE AND EPINEPHRINE
LOSS OF MOTOR FUNCTION PARALYSIS
WHEN ONLY THE UPPER MOTOR NEURONS OF THE PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX ARE DAMAGED ___ PARALYSIS OCCURS SPASTIC PARALYSIS
WHEN THE SPINAL MOTOR NEURONS REMAIN INTACT AND THE MUSCLES CONTINUE TO BE STIMULATED IRREGULARLY BY SPINAL REFLEX ACTIVITIES SPASTIC PARALYSIS
A DAMAGE BETWEEN T1 AND L1 AFFECTS LOWER LIMBS
A DAMAGE BETWEEN T1 AND L1 RESULT IN PARAPLEGIA
A DAMAGE OCCURING IN THE CERVICAL REGION AFFECTS ALL FOUR LIMBS
A DAMAGE IN THE CERVICAL REGION RESULT IN QUADRIPLEGIA
PARALYSIS OF ONE SIDE OF THE BODY IS HEMIPLEGIA
HEMIPLEGIA REFLECTS AND ___ INJURY BRAIN
ACRONYM FOR CRANIAL NERVE: ON, OCCAUSION, OUR, TRUSTY, TRUCK, ACTS, FUNNY, VERY,GOOD, VEHICLE, ANY, HOW
ACRONYM FOR SENSORY/MOTOR OF CRANIAL NERVE: SOME, SAY, MARRY, MONEY, BUT, MY, BROTHER, SAYS, BIG, BRAIN, MATTER, MOST
A PROGRESSIVE DEGENERATIVE DISEASE OF THE BRAIN THAT RESULTS IN DEMENTIA ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
DEGENERATION OF THE DOPAMINE-RELEASING NEURONS OF THE SUBSTANTIA NIGRA PARKINSON'S DISEASE
A FATAL HEREDITARY DISORDER CAUSED BY ACCUMULATION OF THE PROTEIN HUNTINGTIN THAT LEADS TO DEGENERATION OF THE BASAL NUCLEI HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE
SEVERE DAMAGE TO THE VENTRAL ROOT OR ANTERIOR HORN CELLS FLACCID PARALYSIS
DESTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR HORN MOTOR NEURON BY THE POLIOVIRUS POLIMYELITIS
SERVES THE MUSCULAR BRANCHES: FLEXOR MUSCLE IN ANTERIOR ARM (BICEPS BRACHII, BRACHILALIS, CORACOBRACHIALIS) MUSCULOCUTANEOUS
SERVES THE MUSCULAR BRANCHES TO FLEXOR GROUP OF ANTERIOR FOREARM MEDIAN
SERVES THE MUSCULAR BRANCHES: FLEXOR MUSCLES IN ANTERIOR FOREARM ULNAR
SERVES THE MUSCULAR BRANCHES: POSTERIOR MUSCLES OF ARM, FOREARM, AND HAND RADIAL
SERVES THE MUSCULAR BRANCHES: DELTOID AND TERES MINOR MUSCLES AXILLARY
SERVES THE RHOMBOID MUSCLES AND LEVATOR SCAPULAE DORSAL SCAPULAR
SERVES THE SERRATUS ANTERIOR MUSCLES LONG THROACIC
SERVES THE TERES MAJOR AND SUBSCAPULAR MUSCLES SUBSCAPULAR
SERVES THE SHOULDER JOINT; SUPRASPINATUS AND INFRASPINATUS MUSCLES SUPRASCAPULAR
SERVES THE PECTORALIS MAJOR AND MINOR MUSCLES PECTORAL (LATERAL AND MEDIAL)
SERVES THE SKIN OF ANTERIOR AND MEDIAL THIGH, LEG AND FOOD, HIP, KNEE JOINTS, ANTERIOR MUSCLES OF THIGH TO PECTINEUS, ILIACUS FEMORAL
SERVES TO ADDUCTOR MAGNUS, LONGUS, BREVIS MUSCLES, GRACILIS MUSCLE OF MEDIAL THIGH, OBTURATOR EXTERNUS OBTURATOR
SKIN OF LATERAL THIGH, SOME SENSORY BRANCHES TO PERITONEUM LATERAL FEMORAL CUTANEOUS
SKIN OF LOWER ABDOMEN, LOWER BACK AND HIP; MUSCLES OF ANTEROLATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL(OBLIQUES AND TRANSVERSUS) AND PUBLIC REGION LLIOHYPOGASTIC
SKIN OF EXTERNAL GENITALIA AND PROXIMAL MEDIAL ASPECT OF THE THIGH; INFERIOR ABDOMINAL MUSCLES LLIOGINGUINAL
SKIN OF SCROTUM IN MALES, OF LABIA MAJORA IN FEMALIES, AND OF ANTERIR THIGH INFERIOR TO MEDDILE PORTION OF INGUINAL REGION, CREMASTER MUSCLE IN MALES GENITOFEMORAL
COMPOSED OF TWO NERVES (TIBIAL AND COMMON FIBULAR) IN A COMMON SHEATH; THEY DIVERGE JUST PROXIMAL TO THE KNEE SCIATIC NERVE
smell I. OLFACTORY
VISION II. OPTIC
EYELID AND EYEBALL MOVEMENT III. OCULOMOTOR
INNERVATES SUPERIOR OBLIQUE IV. TROCHLEAR
TURNS EYE DOWNWARD AND LATERALLY IV. TRONCHLEAR
TURNS EYE LATERALLY VI. ABDUCENS
CONTROLS MOST FACIAL EXPRESSION VII. FACIAL
SECRETION OF TEARS AND SALIVA VII. FACIAL
TASTE VII. FACIAL
HEARING VIII. VESTIBULOCHOCHLEAR (AUDITORY)
EQUILLIBRIUM SENSATION VIII. VESTIBULOCHOCHLEAR (AUDITORY)
TASTE IX. GLOSSOPHARYNHEAL
SENSES CAROTID BLOOD PRESSURE IX. GLOSSOPHARYNHEAL
SENSES AORTIC BLOOS PRESSURE X. VAGUS
SLOWS HEART RATE X. VAGUS
STIMULATES DIGESTIVE ORGANS X. VAGUS
TASTE X. VAGUS
CONTROLS TRAPEZIUS & STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID XI. SPINAL ACCESSORY
CONTROLS SWALLOWING MOVEMENTS XI. SPINAL ACCESSORY
CONTROLS TONGUE MOVEMENT XII. HYPOGLOSSAL
THE BRAIN HAS THREE MAIN PARTS: 1. CEREBRUM, 2. CEREBELLUM, 3. BRAIN STEM
THE CEREBRUM HOUSES: FRONTAL LOBE, PARIETAL LOBE, TEMPORAL LOBE, OCCIPITAL LOBE
BEHAVIOR, ABSTRACT THOUGHT PROCESS, PROBLEM SLOVING, ATTENTION, CREATIVE THOUGHT, INTELLECT, JUDGEMENT, COORDINATION OF MOVEMENT, SENSE OF SMELL FRONTAL LOBE
MUSCLE MOVEMENT, SKILLED MOVEVMENTS, SOME MOTOR MOVEMENT, PHYSICAL REACTION, LIBIDO(SEXUAL URGES) FRONTAL LOBE
VISION, READING OCCIPITAL LOBE
SENSE OF TOUCH(TACTIBLE SENSATION) PARIETAL LOBE
RESPONSE TO INTERNAL STIMULI PARIETAL LOBE
SENSORY COMBINATION AND COMPREHENSION PARTIETAL LOBE
SOME LANGUAGE AND READING FUNCTIONS PARIETAL LOBE
SOME VISUAL FUNCTION PARIETAL LOBE
AUDITORY MEMORIES TEMPORAL LOBE
SOME HEARING TEMPORAL LOBE
VISUAL MEMORIES TEMPORAL LOBE
SOME VISUAL PATHWAY TEMPORAL LOBE
FEAR TEMPORAL LOBE
SENSE OF IDENTITY TEMPORAL LOBE
CONTROLS THE LEFT SIDE OF THE BODY RIGHT HEMISPHERE
TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS RIGHT HEMISPHERE
ANALYSING NONVERBAL INFORMATION RIGHT HEMISPHERE
COMMUNCATING EMOTION RIGHT HEMISPHERE
CONTROLS THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BODY LEFT HEMISPHERE
PRODUCE AND UNDERSTAND LANGUAGE LEFT HEMISPHERE
COMMUNCATION BETWEEN THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRAIN CORPUS CALLOSUM
BALANCE CEREBELLUM
POSTURE CEREBELLUM
CARDIAC, RESPIRATORY, AND VASOMOTOR CENTERS CEREBELLUM
MOTOR AND SENSORY PATHWAY TO THE BODY AND FACE BRAIN STEM
VITAL CENTERS: CARDIAC, RESPIRATORY, VASOMOTOR BRAIN STEM
MOODS AND MOTIVATION HYPTHALAMUS
SEXUAL MATURATION HYPOTHALAMUS
TEMPERATURE REGULATION HYPOTHALAMUS
HORMONAL BODY PROCESS HYPOTHALAMUS
VISION AND THE OPTIC NERVE OPTIC CHIASM
HORMONAL BODY PROCESS PITUITARY GLAND
PHYSICAL MATURATION PITUITARY GLAND
GROWTH PITUITARY GLAND
SEXUAL MATURATION PITUITARY GLAND
SEXUAL FUNCTIONING PITUITARY GLAND
FUNCTIONS SOLELY BY CARRYING AFFERENT IMPULSES FOR VISION II. OPTIC
FUNCTION SOLELY BY CARRYING AFFERENT IMPULSES FOR THE SENSE OF SMELL I. OLFACTORY
FUNCTION IN RAISING THE EYELID, DIRECTING THE EYEBALL, CONSTRICTING THE IRIS, AND CONTROLING LENS SHAPE III. OCULOMOTOR
PRIMARILY A MOTOR NERVE THAT DIRECTS THE EYEBALL IV. TROCHLEAR
CONVEYS IMPULSES FROM VARIOUS AREAS OF THE FACE AND SUPPLIES MOTOR FIBERS FOR MASTICATION V. TRIGEMINAL
PRIMARILY A MOTOR NERVE INNERVATING THE LATERAL RECTUS MUSCLE VI. ABDUCENS
MOTOR FUCTIONS INCLUDE FACIAL EXPRESSION AND THE TRANSMITTAL OF AUTONOMIC IMPULSES TO LACRIMAL AND SALIVARY GLANDS VII. FACIAL
SENSORY FUNCTION IS TASTE FROM THE ANTERIOR TWO-THIRDS OF THE TONGUE VII. FACIAL
FUNCTIONS ARE SOLELY SENSORY-EQUILIBRIUM AND HEARING VIII. VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR
MOTOR-INNERVATES PART OF THE TONGUE AND PHARYNX, AND PROVIDES MOTOR FIBERS TO THE PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND IX. GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
SENSORY-FIBERS CONDUCT TASTE AND GENERAL SENSORY IMPULSES FROM THE POSTERIOR 1/3 OF THE TONGUE AND THE PHARYNX IX. GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
MOTOR FIBERS ARE PARASYMPATHETIC FIBERS TO THE HEART, LUNGS, AND VISCERAL ORGANS X. VAGUS
SUPPLIES FIBERS TO THE LARYNX, PARYNX, AND SOFT PALATE XI. ACCESSORY
INNERVATES THE TRAPEZIUS AND STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID, WIHICH MOVE THE HEAD AND NECK XI. ACCESSORY
INNERVATES BOTH EXTRINSIC AND INTRISIC MUSCLESOF THE TONGUE, WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO SWALLOWING AND SPEECH XII. HYPOGLOSSAL
THE MOST IMPORTANT NERVE OF THE CERVIAL PLEXUS PRENIC NERVE
THE ___ NERVE IS THE MAJOR MOTOR AND SENSORY NERVE OF THE DIAPHRAGM PHRENIC NERVE
BRACHIAL PLEXUS INCLUDE AXILLARY, MUSCULOCUTANEOUS, MEDIAN, ULNAR, RADIAL
INNERVATES THE DELTOID AND TERES MINOR AXILLARY
SENDS FIBERS TO THE BICEPS BRACHII AND BRACHIALIS MUSCULOCUTANEOUS
BRANCHES TO MOST OF THE FLEXOR MUSCLES OF ARM MEDIAN
SUPPLIES THE FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS AND PART OF THE FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDUS ULNAR
INNERVATES ESSENTIALLY ALL EXTENSOR MUSCLE RADIAL
LUMBAR PLEXUS INCLUDE FEMORAL AND OBTURATOR
MAJOR NERVES OF THE LUMBAR PLEXUS FEMORAL AND OBTURATOR
THE LONGEST AND THICKEST NERVE OF THE BODY SCIATIC
SACRAL PLEXUS INCLUDE SCIATIC
Created by: evang