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Essentials of A&E

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology-Chapter 1 & 2

TermRefers to
Tissue Level Third level of organization.
Organism Level Sixth level of organization.
Chemical Level First level of organization.
Organ System Level Fifth level of organization.
Cellular Level Second level of organization.
Organ Level Fourth level of organization.
Anatomy The study of body structure, which includes size, shape, composition, and perhaps coloration.
Physiology The study of how the body functions.
Pathophysiology The study of disorders of functioning.
Inorganic Chemicals Usually simple molecules made of one or two elements other than carbon. (with a few exceptions)
Organic Chemicals Often very complex and always contain the elements carbon and hydrogen.
Cells The smallest living units of structure and function.
Tissues A group of cells with similar structure and function.
Epithelial Cells Cover or line body surfaces; some are capable of producing secretions with specific functions.
Connective Tissues Connect and support parts of the body; some transport or store materials.
Muscle Tissues Specialized for contraction, which brings about movement.
Nerve Tissue Specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses that regulate body functions.
Organ A group of tissues precisely arranged to accomplish specific functions.
Organ System A group of organs that all contribute to a particular function.
Homeostasis When the body is stable and in good health.
Negative Feedback When the body's response reverses a stimulus and keeps some aspect of the body within normal range.
Axillary Armpit
Brachial Upper arm
Buccal (oral) Mouth
Cardiac Heart
Cervical Neck
Cranial Head
Cutaneous Skin
Deltoid Shoulder
Femoral Thigh
Frontal Forehead
Gastric Stomach
Gluteal Buttocks
Hepatic Liver
Iliac Hip
Inguinal Groin
Lumbar Small of back
Mammary Breast
Nasal Nose
Occipital Back of head
Orbital Eye
Parietal Crown of head
Patellar Kneecap
Pectoral Chest
Perineal Pelvic Floor
Plantar Sole of foot
Paoliteal Back of knee
Pulmonary Lungs
Renal Kidney
Sacral Base of spine
Temporal Side of head
Umbilical Navel
Volar (palmar) Palm
Anatomic Position Upright, facing forward, arms at sides with palms forward, and feet slightly apart.
Dosral Cavity Contains the central nervous system, and consists of the cranial cavity and the vertebral or spinal cavity.
Cranial Cavity Formed by the skull and contains the brain.
Spinal Cavity Formed by the backbone (spine) and contains the spinal cord.
Meninges The membranes that line these cavities and cover the brain and spinal cord.
Superior Above, or higher
Inferior Below, or lower
Anterior Toward the front
Posterior Toward the back
Ventral Toward the front
Dorsal Toward the back
Medial Toward the midline
Lateral Away from the midline
Internal Within, or interior to
External Outside, or exterior to
Superficial Toward the surface
Deep Within, or interior to
Central The main part
Peripheral Extending from the main part
Proximal Closer to the origin
Distal Farther from the origin
Parietal Pertaining to the wall of a cavity
Visceral Pertaining to the organs within a cavity
Ventral Cavity Consists of two compartments, the thoracic and the abdominal cavity, which are separated by the diaphragm.
Thoracic Cavity Contains the heart and lungs.
Pleural Membranes Serous membranes of the Thoracic cavity
Pericardial Membranes Serous membranes of the heart
Abdominal Cavity Contains the liver, stomach and intestines.
Peritoneum The membrande that lines the entire abdominal wall.
Mesentery The continuation of the peritoneum that is folded around and covering the outer surfaces of the abdominal organs.
Pelvic Cavity Inferior to the abdominal cavity; contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs.
Plane An imaginary flat surface that separates two portions of the body or organ.
Frontal (coronal) Section A plane from side to side that separates the body into front and back portions.
Saggital Section A plane from front to back that separates the body into right and left portions.
Transverse Section A horizontal plane that separates the body into upper and lower portions.
Cross-Section A plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ.
Longitudinal Section A plane along the long axis of an organ.
MidSagittal Section Creates equal right and left halves of the body.
Quadrants A transverse plane and a midsagittal plane that cross at the umbilicus and divide the abdomen into four quadrants.
Nine Areas Two transverse planes and two sagittal planes divide the abdomen into nine areas.
Upper Areas Above the level of the rib cartilages are the left hypochondriac, epigastric, and right hypochondriac.
Middle Areas The left lumbar, umbilical, and righ lumbar.
Lower Areas Below the level of the top of the pelvic bone are the left iliac, hypogastric, and right iliac.
Element A substance made of only one type of atom.
Atom Consists of three major subunits or particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
Proton Has a positive electrical charge and is found in the nucleus (center) of the atom.
Neutron Is eclectrically neutral (has no charge) and is found in the nucleus of the atom.
Electron Has a negative electrical charge and orbits in the outer shell around the nucleus of the atom.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the atom.
Atomic Weight The mass and weight of protons and neutrons an atom.
Molecule Formed by atoms bonding to one another through their electrons.
Energy Levels Shells where electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.
Chemical Bond A force or attraction between positive ad negative electrical charges that keeps two or more atoms together to form molecules.
Ionic Bond The loss of one or more electrons by one atom and the gain of the electron(s) by another atom or atoms. Weak bond in aqueous solution.
H Hydrogen
C Carbon
N Nitrogen
O Oxygen
Na Sodium
F Flourine
Mg Magnesium
P Phosphorus
S Sulfur
Cl Chlorine
K Potassium
Ca Calcium
Mn Manganes
Fe Iron
Co Cobalt
Cu Copper
Zn Zinc
I Iodine
Valence An electrical charge.
Ion When an atom adds or loses one or more electrons.
Salt A molecule made of ions.
Cation Ion with a positive charge.
Anion Ion with a negative charge.
Aqueous Solution Water
Dissociation When bonds of of ions in a molecule become weak and separate.
Synthesis Chemical manufacture.
Covalent Bond The sharing of electrons between atoms.
Disulfide Bond (bridge) A covalent bond formed between two atoms of sulfur, usually within the same large protein molecule.
Hydrogen Bond Forms a weak bond with other atoms because of slight positive charge of its proton.
Synthesis Reaction Bonds are formed to join two or more atoms or molecules to make a new compound.
Decomposition Reaction Bonds are broken and a large molecule is changed to two or more smaller ones.
Solvent Many substances can be dissoved in it.
Properties of Water Makes up 60-75% of the body,a solvent, a lubricant, changes temperature slowly to prevent sudden changes in body temperature.
Intracellular Fluid (ICF) The water within cells of the body, about 65% of the total.
Water Compartments The locations of water within the body.
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) Water outside the cells of the body, about 35% of the total.
Plasma Water found in blood vessels, part of ECF.
Lymph Water found in lympatic vessels, part of ECF.
Tissue Fluid (interstitial fluid) Water found in the small spaces between celss, part of ECF.
Specialized Fluids Synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous homor in the eye, etc., part of ECF.
Oxygen 21% of the atmosphere, essential for cell respiration: the breakdown of food molecules to release energy.
Carbon Dioxide Produced by cells as a waste product of cell respiration, must be exhaled to prevent acidosis.
Cell Respiration Energy production within cells. Glucose(food) and Oxygen combine to yield carbon dioxide, water, ATP and heat.
Trace Elements Elements that are needed by the body in very small amounts.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Molecule that traps the energy released by cell respiration. Is a specialized nucleotide that consists of the base adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups.
Acid A substance that increases concentration fo hydrogen ions in a water solution.
Base A substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a water solution.
pH Parts hydrogen
pH scale Measures the acidity alkalinity(basicity) of a solution and ranges from 0-14, with acid being below 7, alkaline above 7, and neutral at 7.
Functions of Calcium Strong bones and teeth, blood clotting, muscle contraction.
Fundtions of Phosphorus Strong bones and teeth, part of DNA & RNA, part of cell membranes
Functions of Iron Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells, transports oxygen, part of myoglobin in muscles, stores oxygen, necessary for cell respiration
Functions of Copper Necessary for cell respiration and hemoglobin synthesis.
Functions of Sodium and Potassium Necessary for muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission
Functions of Sulfur Part of some proteins such as insulin and keratin
Functions of Cobalt Part of vitamin B12
Functions of Iodine Part of thyroid hormones-thyroxine.
Buffer System A chemical or pair of chemicals that minimizes changes in pH.
Bicarbonate Buffer System Consists of carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate and buffers blood and tissue fluid.
Organic Compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Carbohydrate Serves as a source of energy.
Saccharide Sugar
Monosaccharide Single sugar carbohydrate
Hexose Six carbon sugar.
Pentose Five carbon sugar.
Disaccharide Double sugars made of two monosaccharides linked by covalent bonds.
Oligosaccharides Consist of 3-20 monsaccharides.
Antigens Chemical markers that identify cells.
Polysaccharide Made of thousands of glucose molecules bonded in different ways.
Starches Branched chains of glucose produced by plant cells to store energy.
Glycogen A highly branched chain of glucose molecules stored in the liver.
Cellulose A nearly straight chain of glucose molecules produced by plant cells as part of their cell walls.
Fiber Another name for dietary cellulose; provides bulk within the large intestine.
Peristalsis The waves of contraction that propel undigested material through the colon.
Lipids Contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and some contain phosphorus.
True Fats A type of lipid that is made of one molecule of glycerola and one, two or three fatty acid molecules. A storage form for excess food.
Triglyceride A type of true fat that consists fo three fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol molecule.
Phospholipids Diglycerides with a phosphate group in the third bonding site of glycerol. Part of cell membranes.
Steroids Consist of four rings of carbon and hydrogen. Cholesterol, produced in the liver and consumed in food, is the basic steroid from which the body makes others.
Proteins Made of smaller subunits called amino acids, which all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Peptide Bond A bond between tow amino acids.
Polypeptide A short chain of amino acids.
Enzymes Catalysts (speed up chemical reactions)
Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA) Large molecules made of smaller subunits called nucletides.
Nucleotide Consists of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group and one of several nitrogenous bases.
Genetic Code DNA making up the chromasomes of cells.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) Energy released from food in cell respiration is used to synthesize ATP from ADP + P. When cells need energy, ATP is broked down to ADP+P.
Active Site Theory Based on the shape of the enzyme and the shapes of the reacting molecules.
Created by: lmacon