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LAB #14 BIO 162

Animal Reproduction

Asexual reproduction Offspring production is “cloning” – they produce offspring that are genetically identical to themselves
Sexual Reproduction Offspring production to comes from production of gametes by meiosis. Offspring is genetically different.
Budding Offspring forms on or within a parent and eventually breaks free to live on its own
Fission And individual splits into two identical individuals by mitosis
Parthenogenesis Females produce eggs by mitosis and the resultant offspring are genetically identical to them
Oviparous Animals that lay eggs
Viviparous Animals that bear live young
Amniotic Egg The fetus is enveloped in a series of membranes
Monotremes The class of animals including duck-billed platapus and the spiny echidna that lay eggs
Marsupials Give live birth to young that then live in pouches
Placental mammals Animals that give birth to live young that develop in the mothers uterus
Gonad Gamete-producing structure
Testis The male gonad
Spermatogenesis The process by which spermatozoa are formed
Seminiferous tubules Where immature sperm develop
Epididymis Where sperm mature
Erection Male arousal involving a stiffening of the penis
Vas Deferens Where spermatozoa is mixed with secretions of several accessory glands
Urethra What carries sperm from the male to the female reproductive tract
Prostate Glands Prevents urinary tract infection in males
Seminal Vesicles Source of chemical energy for sperm movements
Bulbourethral Gland Lubricates tip of penis and neutralizes acids in urethra
Ovary The female gonad which produces ova by oogenesis
Oogenesis The production of ova
Oocytes Immature ova
Follicles Fluid filled sacs where oocytes develop
Graafian follicle A mature follicle containing an oocyte ready to be ovulated
Ovulaiton When a Graafian follicle ruptures and delivers the oocyteto the oviduct
Oviduct Uterine tube
Corpus Luteum A ruptured follicle
Menstration When the oocyte and corpus luteum both disintegrate if tfertilizatoin does not occur
Labia majora and labia minora Female external genitalia
Cervic An opening in the base of the uterus
Endometrium Where the zygotes travels and implants on the highly vascular inner lining
Placenta A structure that connects the vascular system of the mother and the fetus
Parturition Dilation of the cervix followed by delivery of the infant and the placenta
Embryonic Development Process where animals undergo cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis
Cell division Where a single cell gives rise to many cells through the process of mitosis
Differentiation Cells become specialized into different tissues
Morphogenesis When the embryo begins to take shape
Cleavage A period as a result of fertilization marked by rapid cell
Morula Solid base of cells
Blastula When the morula develops a fluid-filled center
Blastocoel The fluid filled center of the blastula
Gastrulation When the blastula invaginates to form a two-layered gastrula
Ectoderm The outside layer of the gastrula
Endoderm The inside layer of the gastrula
Mesoderm The middle layer of the gastrula that forms after the endo/ectoderms
Organogeneis The process by which all organs are formed
Notochord The first “backbone” in vertebrates
Neural tube The embryo’s pre-cursor to the central nervous system
Life stages Stages of metamorphosis (such as larvae and adult)
Metamorphosis The process of “growing” into various life stages
Tadpoles The stage directly after eggs for many frogs
Metamorph When an animal sprouts limbs and moves onto land
Created by: ahypnaro