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LAB 17 - BIO 162

Skeletal and Muscle systems

Hydrostatic Skeleton Consists of internal body fluids within a limited space
Exoskeleton A rigid structure formed external to the body and attached to the body surface
Chitin The substance that makes up the exoskeleton of arthropods
Molting The shedding of the exoskeleton
Endoskeleton A skeleton of rigid components inside an animals body
Cartilage Flexible connective tissue
Calcareous Calcium-containing
Ligaments Tough fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
Diaphysis The large shaft of bone
Epiphysis The two “stubs” at the end of the bone
Articular Cartilage Reduces friction in the joins and protects the ends of the bone
Periosteum The tough membrane containing blood vessels that penetrate the bone
Spongy bone The bone in the epiphysis
Compact Bone The bone surrounding the spongy bone in the epiphysis and the medullary cavity in the diaphysis
Medullary Cavity A hollow cavity in the diaphysis which holds bone marrow
Red marrow Fills the spaces in the spongy bone and makes red and white blood cells
Yellow Marrow Fills the medullary cavity
Epiphyseal disc Cartilage located between the diaphysis and each epiphysis
Epiphyseal line All that remains of the growth plate after mature bone is formed
Axial skeleton Composed of skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
Appendicular Skeleton Consists of bones of the upper extremities and the pectoral girdle and lower extremities and pelvic girdle
Skull Contains the cranium, facial bones, and mandible
Cranium 8 fused bones encasing the brain
Mandible Lower jaw
Vertebral column Vertebrae separated by intervetebral disks (composed of fibrocartilage)
Cervical Vertebrae 7 vertebrae of neck
Thoracic Vertebrae 12 Vertebrae of the thorax, to which ribs are attached
Lumbar Vertbrae 5 large vertebrae of lower back
Sacrum Bone formed of 5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx Tailbone formed of 3-5 fused vertebrae
Floating Ribs The last two pairs of ribs unattached
Sternum The first 10 pairs of ribs are joined here
Pectoral Girdle Supports the upper extremities
Clavicle Collarbone
Scapula Shoulder Blade
Humerus Upper arm bone
Ulna and Radius Bones that form the lower arm
Carpal Bones Wrist
Metacarpals Bones of the hand
Phalanges The digits
Pelvic Girdle Two hip bones
Femur Thigh bone
Patella Kneecap
Tibia Shin bone
Fibula The smaller bone of the lower leg
Tarsal bones The ankle of the foot
Metatarsals The anterior foot bones
Phalanges Toes
Tibio-Fibula The fused tibia and fibula of the hind legs of frogs
Tibiotarsis The fused tibia and proximal tarsal bones of birds
Tarsometatarsus Lowest part of the leg (fused distal tarsals and metatarsal bones)
Muscles Large groups of organized contractile cells
Skeletal Muscle Tissue Muscle fibers that make up skeletal muscles
Myofibrils Contractile elements of the muscles
Striations Cross-banding in muscles
Voluntary Under Conscious Control
Cardiac Muscle Tissue Striated, interwoven muscle of the heart
Intercalated Discs Connected cells that signal electral pulses to each other
Smooth Muscle Non striated, non-voluntary muscles usually found in the digestive or circulatory systems
Involuntary Not under conscious control
Tendons Muscles attached to bone
Origin The end of the muscle attached to bone that doe not more during contraction
Insertion The bone to which the muscle is attached at the end where movement occurs
Antagonistic Group Contraction of opposing muscles moves a body part in opposite directions
Flexors and Extensors Flexors decrease the angel of bones that form a joint. Wheras extensors increase the angle
Abductors Abductors move a body part away from the midline of the body
adductors move a body part toward the midline
Biceps bracchii and triceps bracchii The major antagonistic group that control elbow flexion
Quadriceps femoris and hamstrings The major antagonistic group that control knee flexion
Created by: ahypnaro



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