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Pharm Antibiotics

Beta Lactam anti biotics Workd by covalently binding the active site of a transpeptidase enzyme
Beta lactams are bacteri---- Bactericidal
Transpeptdase Enzymes Catalyze the cross-linking reaction on PG polymers in synthesis of bacterial cell wall
Beta lactam's selective toxicity due to Mammalian cells not having cell wall.
Baeta Lactams act only on cells which are growing and synthesizing new cell wall material
Beta Lactam Antibiotics Include Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems
Penicillin -Most allergenic of all antibiotcs. -All penicillins, new or old, are cross-sensitizing and cross reacting
Penicillin undesirable properties -rapid excretion -bacterial resistance - S. aureus penicillinase elaboration makes it resistanct to nearly all penicillins except methicillin-type penicillins -Strep viridans has some resistant strains
problem of penicillin therapy Hypersensitivity reactions. -resistance development.
Penicillin drug interactions bacteriostatic antibiotics. -oral contraceptives(decreases effectiveness of all oral contraceptives).
Penicillin Derivatives Penicillin G -Benzathine penicillin G -procaine penicillin G -Penicillin V
Penicillin G antibacterial spectrum: gram +, Neisserai spp., Some anaerobes
Penicillin G administered via parenteral route
Uses of Penicillin G beta-hemolytic strep, inf. w/pneumococci, meningococcal inf., syphilis, inf. by B. anthracis, other gram + inf.
characteristics of Pen. G acid labile, Poor absorption after oral administration, dosage measured in units-1600units/mg
Benzathine Pen G. use used for prolonged effects for beta-hemolytic strep. inf. ("strep throat"), Syphylis, other gram + inf.
Benzathing Pen G also are repository forms of Penicillin G. _lower, sustained blood levels
Procaine Pen. G also repository forms of PenG. -lower, sustained blood levers.
Penicillin V antibacterial spectrum: Only gram + aerobes and some anaerobes
Penicillin V administered via Oral route
Penicillin V is... Bactericidal. -Acid stable
Penicillin G 1st penicillin discovered and used (alexander fleming, 1929)
Penicillinase Resistant Penicillins Methicillin, Cloxacillin, Oxacillin, Naficillin, Dicloxacillin
Which are Acid Unstable Methicillin
Which are Acid Stable Cloxacillin, Oxacillin, Naficillin, Dicloxacillin
Methicillin used for S. aureaus treatment
#1 drug used in Hospitals Methicillin
Extended Spectrum Penicillins Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid
Extended Spectrum Penicillins have broader spectrun than penicillin V
Extended Spectrum Penicillins used for gram - and gram + organisms
amoxicillin and ampicillin used for gram + & - aerobes and most oral anaerobes
Extended Stectrum Antibiotics: Amoxicillin and Ampicillin have a greater propensity to cause super-infections
Amoxicillin and ampicillin are also active against S. pyogenes, S. pnueumoniae, H. influenzae, Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli, and L. monocytogenes(menigitis)
Why is resistance becoming a problem with amp and amox. due to excessive use. Amox is #1 prescribed in US
2 drugs adequately absorbed ad ter oral administration Amoxicillin and Ampicillin
Absorption reduced with food in Ampicillin
good absortption after oral administration even with food Amoxicillin
Why combine Amox or Amp with Clavulanic acid it protects the antibiotics from penicillinase produced by Staphylococci
Specific Purpose penicillins are Ticarcillin, Piperacillin, Aztocillin, Mezlocillin
relatively non toxic antibiotic of specific purpose Ticarcillin
Ticarcillin's use is reserved for serious infections of Pseudomonas ssp. and Indole positive proteus ssp.
anti-pseudomonas penicillins piperacillin, Axlocillin, Mexlocillin
for Ticarcillin you must test bacterial susceptibility due to large variations in sensitivity of various strains of pseudomonas and proteus
Created by: Garzilla