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L&M Ch.10 Nervous S

Nervous System for Language & Medicine Ch.10

Acetycholine Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
Afferent nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord.
Arachnoid membrane Middle layer of the 3 membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Astrocyte Type of glial cell that transports water and salts from capillars.
Autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Blood-brain barrier Blood vessels that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
Brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
Cauda Equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
Cell body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord.
Cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells: gray matter of the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain.
Cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the neck and head.
Dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surround and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
Efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve.
Ependymal cell Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain adn spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
Ganglion Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
Glial cell Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses.
Gyrus Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex.
Hypothalamus Portion of the brain just beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appitite,and body temp
Medulla Oblongata Portion of the brain just abocve the spinal cord; controls breathing and heartbeat.
Meninges 3 protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Microglial cell Phagocytic glial cel that removes wast products from the central nervous system.
Motor nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs.
Myelin Sheath Covering of white fatty tissure that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell.
Nerve Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry electical impulses.
Neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body.
Neurtransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell.
Oligodendroglial cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons.
Parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body function such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of gastrointestinal tract.
Parenchyma Distinguishing tissue of any organ or system.
Peripheral nervous sytem Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
Pia Mater Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
Plexus Large, interlacing network of nerves.
Pons Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the medbrain.
Receptor Organ the receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves.
Sciatic nerve Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg and foot.
Sensory nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor.
Spinal nerve 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
Stimulus Agent of change in the internal or external enviroment the evokes a response.
Stroma Connnective and supporting tissue of an organ.
Sulcus Depression or groove in the surface of trhe cerebral cortex.
Sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
Synapse Space throug which a nervous impuls traves between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.
Thalamus Main relay center of the brain, Conducts i
Vagus nerve 10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach.
Ventricles of the brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Created by: Niqua843



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