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The Language of Medicine Ch. #10

Acetylcholine Neurotrasmitter chemical released at the ends of the nerve cells.
Afferent Nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord(sensory nerve).
Arachnoid Membrane Middle layer of the three membranes(meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Astrocyte Type of glial(neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
Autonomic Nervous System Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Blood-Brain Barrier Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
Brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata.
Cauda Equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
Cell Body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
Central Nervous System(CNS) Brain and the spinal cord.
Cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Cerebral Cortex Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Circulates throughout the brain and the spinal cord.
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve).
Dendrites Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Dura Mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
Efferent Nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve.
Ependymal Cell Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
Ganglion (plural:ganglia) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
Glial Cell (Neuroglial Cell) Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
Gyrus (plural:Gyri) Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution.
Hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
Medulla Oblongata Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
Meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Microglial Cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.
Motor Nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve.
Myelin Sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
Nerve Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
Neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body.
Neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
Oligodendroglial Cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte.
Parasympathetic Nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
Parenchyma Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and neurons.
Peripheral Nervous System Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; crainial, spinal, autonomic nerves.
Pia Mater Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
Plexus (plural:Plexuses) Large, interlacing network of nerves. Examples are lumbosacral, cervical, and branchial plexuses.
Pons Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
Receptor Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
Sciatic Nerve Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
Sensory Nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; Afferent Nerve.
Spinal Nerves Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
Stimulus (plural:stimuli) Agent of change (light,sound,touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
Stroma Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
Sulcus (plural:sulci) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
Sympathetic Nerves Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
Synapse Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve nad muscle or glandular cells.
Thalamus Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cordand the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
Vagus Nerve Tenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its brancehes reach to the laryn, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach.
Ventricles of the Brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Created by: monalisa81



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