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Supraspinal Motor

The phylogenetically older medial pathways control what? extensors, axial and proximal muscles for control of posture and balance
Lateral pathways control what types of muscles? flexors, distal muscles for fine motor control
List medial pathways vestibULOspinal, reticULOspinal, descending MLF
List lateral pathways rubrospinal, lateral and ventral corticospinal, tectospinal
The descending MLF that goes to extensors in the arms originates where? medial vestibular nucleus
Projections from the lateral vestibular nucleus descend within what tract and innervate what? vestibulospinal tract; extensor alpha motoneuron pools at all levels down to lumbosacral
Origins of the medial and lateral reticulospinal tracts: medial RS tract - pons (medial boob) lateral RS tract - medulla
Lateral reticulospinal tract is (excitatory/inhibitory) on extensor gamma motoneurons in the arms or legs. inhibitory
True/False: The right medial reticulospinal tract excites the L side extensor muscles of arms and legs. False: medial RS tract excites both side arms and legs
Which 2 supraspinal tracts decussate in the midbrain? rubrospinal and tectospinal
Both lat and med RS tracts receive input from the cerebral cortex, but which receives input from ascending spinoreticular sources? medial RS tract
function of tectospinal tract head and trunk positioning in response to visual stimuli (each side innervates bilaterally @ target level)
rubrospinal tract function (hint: lateral pathway) upper limb movement, magnocellular populations excite flexors in hands
cortical origin(s) for lateral corticospinal tract primary motor cortex AND primary somatic sensory cortex
List how indirect control of motoneurons occurs in both lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts. lateral - synapses on red nucleus, descends with rubrospinal ventral - synapses with reticular formations, descends with retiulospinal (corticoreticulospinal tract)
Stroke of this area could easily cause a complete hemiparesis due to the small amt of space all corticospinal tracts are packed into. internal capsule
Corticobulbar fibers deccusate where? at the level of the brainstem of the respective CN nucleus
Which corticofugal first order neuron cell bodies reside most medially in the cerebral cortex? corticospinal, specifically toes, feet, etc.
What is the general hierarchy of cortical neurons giving motor commands? supplementary motor to premotor to primary motor cortex
Intent to initiate planned movement on cue such as a specific patterned finger movement when a light flashes involves input from which cortices? premotor and primary motor cortices
What has the most recent research shown to be erroneous about how we related the homunculus to cortical mapping? electrical stimulation of the cortex at the location of a specific region doesn't necessarily activate one specific muscle group, but rather a group of muscles that would work synergistically towards purposeful movement in a specific direction
take-home message of microstimulation of primary motor cortex microstimulating a certain spot of the motor cortex will recruit whatever muscles are necessary to make a monkey move its arm from where the experimenter holds it in space back to its mouth, for example
Which type of motor neuron lesion is characterized by minimally diminished fine motor control? LMN lesion
True/False: Hyperreflexia seen in LMN lesions can spread spatially to other muscle neuron groups when a tendon is stretched. False: UMN lesions show this - patellar tendon stretch = quadriceps contract, foot extends and maybe other side's leg kicks out
What type of pt should have a positive Babinski sign? A newborn without fully myelinated tracts AND anyone with a spinal cord injury causing LMN syndrome in foot/toe extensors
The term "spasticity" implies what? UMN syndrome with hyperreflexia and hypertonia
Explain the mechanism behind decerebrate posturing. upper pons or midbrain lesion terminates rubrospinal and corticospinal antagonist input on vestibulo- and reticulospinal pathways, so the latter have free reign and cause elbow and leg extension with wrist, finger and plantar flexion
Why does the medullary reticulospinal tract not equal out the signal from the pontine tract that innervates extensors? pontine reticulospinal neurons are being excited continually by spinoreticular afferents and this overall signal is greater than the medullary reticulospinal tract signals
Explain why the arms are flexed in decorticate posturing. The rubrospinal tract is spared and these neurons synapse on alpha motoneuron pools for flexors only through the cervical cord
Where does one expect a lesion or injury to be localized if the pt is displaying decorticate posturing? anywhere rostral to the red nuclei of the midbrain such as a cerebral cortical lesion
Created by: sirprakes
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