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Sleep and Wake Regul

Where is the human circadian rhythm generator located? suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus
What does the C refer to in the two process model of sleep-wake regulation? circadian rhythm
The complementary homeostatic drive to sleep is governed by what area of the hypothalamus? ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO)
Melatonin levels correlate with... relative light in the organism's environment
With a frequency of 8-12 Hz, this describes the normal brain electrical activity in adults at rest with eyes closed. alpha rhythm OR posterior dominant rhythm
What are the two most distinguishing features of REM sleep on EEG? muscle atonia (in chin perhaps) and REMs from prefrontal-orbital leads
** The amount of time you stay awake after your normal sleep time will positively indicate the proportion of _______ when you finally get to sleep. ** slow wave sleep - it will increase proportionally to the time you stayed awake
The NREM stage _______ is the most predominant during sleep and comprises about _____% of sleep during a typical night. N2; 50%
Stage N1 sleep is characterized by _____ waves (4-7 Hz). theta waves
Stage N2 is confirmed what 3 EEG findings? irregular theta activity (like N1), K-complexes and 12-16 Hz sleep spindles
Slow wave sleep (1-3 Hz), or stage _____, comprises ___% of a normal night's sleep. N3, 20%
Which phase of sleep diminishes at a rate of 2% total sleep time/night/decade? slow wave sleep or N3
During which part of the night does most of slow wave sleep happen? first half of the night
Bremer's experiment where cats were transected through the pontomesencephalic junction resulted in what? cerveau isole projection; cats' EEGs showed slow waves and spingles, characteristic of NREM stage N2
Lesions of the anterior hypothalamus noted by Economo in influenza pts explained their symptoms of... perpetual sleeplessness/insomnia
What is the function of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)? ARAS contains wake-promoting neurons responsible for arousal
Orexin's function? neurotransmitter secreted to promote vigilance
Disturbance of activity or complete insufficiency of orexin results in? narcolepsy in humans
List the 6 NTs known to promote wakefulness and arousal. orexin (hypocretin), dopamine, serotonin, histamine, NE, ACh
Most important cholinergic neuronal centers pedunculopontine (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) areas
** Firing rate of cholinergic neurons is highest during ____________. ** wake and REM sleep
NE-producing neurons are located in the ______. locus coeruleus (LC)
Histamine-producing neurons are located in the _______. tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of posterior hypothalamus
Explain why diphenhydramine is prescribed for insomnia. antihistamine blocks the NT, diminishes alertness and facilitates sleep
NT of the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei serotonin (5-HT)
What effect does an SSRI like Prozac have on the sleep-wake cycle? promotes wakefulness, supresses slow waves and REM sleep completely
Name 3 locations containing dopaminergic neuron projections with reference to sleep-wake cycle. substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, posterior hypothalamus
How do amphetamines affect dopamine? enhance dopamine release and block its reuptake
** List 4 types of drugs approved by FDA to treat insomnia. ** antihistamines - Benadryl/diphenhydramine GABA receptor agonists:: benzodiazepines - Restoril or Valium/diazepam; non-benzodiazepines - Ambien/zolpidem and Lunesta/eszopiclone Melatonin agonists: Rozerem
Orexin is produced in the _____ and _____ hypothalamus. lateral and posterior
Condition characterized by persistent sleepiness during wake periods with interspersed sudden muscle atonia as during REM sleep induced by strong emotion, laughter or surprise cataplexy
With relation to sleep, the VLPO of hypothalamus produces what 2 NTs? GABA and galanin
The negative feedback loop between what 2 nuclei is known as the "sleep switch?" VLPO and ARAS
LIst 4 molecules/peptides known to be soporific. GABA, galanin, adenosine and TNF-alpha
Why are physically and mentally taxing activities such as seizures or playing sports typically followed by a feeling of sleepiness? [adenosine] builds up in cells and eventually reaches the basal forebrain
mechanism of caffeine's action blocks adenosine receptors in the basal forebrain
What are the dangerous sequelae of transtentorial herniation? mass or hemorrhage causes downward displacement or compression of diencephalon or brainstem --> causes LOC, apnea, brain death due to ischemia, elevated ICP
** early signs of brain stem herniation ** repeated yawning and sighing then Cheyne-stokes breathing and worsening stupor; eventually no eye opening and decorticate posturing to noxious stimuli
Created by: sirprakes
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