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What information does the muscle spindle device send back to the spinal cord? info about muscle stretch
What type of nerve fibers relay muscle spindle information? Type Ia and II, myelinated fast-conducting
What information does the Golgi tendon organ (GTO) send back to the spinal cord? info about muscle force
What type of nerve fibers relay GTO information? Ib large myelinated fibers
List the efferents for the muscle spindle device and GTO. spindle - gamma motoneurons GTO - none
Explain the afferent activity of muscle spindles during 1) passive stretch, 2)experimental (artificially induced)contraction and 3) volitional contraction. 1) passive - increased firing rate 2) exp. contraction - decreased firing rate 3) voluntary contraction - increased firing rate via coactivation of gamma motoneurons
Define the term gain. the sensitivity of sensory feedback
To avoid loss of gain from muscle spindles during volitional contraction, what phenomenon takes place? alpha-gamma co-activation
What is the myotactic reflex? DTR
Explain the tri-neuronal, disynaptic reflex that occurs when the patellar tendon is struck by a reflex hammer. reflex hammer activates Ia and II muscle spindle afferents, synapse on motoneurons of agonists/synergists directly AND on Ia inhibitory interneurons that stop antagonist muscles from firing
What does the H-reflex quantitatively measure? amplitude and latency of myotactic reflex
Explain the series of events that occur during supra-maximal force exertion of the biceps muscles, for example. GTO sends Ib afferents to spinal cord, inhibitory Ib interneurons are activated, agonists are inhibited and antagonists are activated. supraspinal input is also a factor
What is the function of Renshaw cells? After a delay, they synapse on antagonist muscles to activate them and inhibit agonist motoneuron pools - negative feedback control
What is the name of the negative feedback control that is possible due to collateral branches from motoneurons that turn back to synapse on Renshaw cells in the ventral horn? recurrent inhibition
Describe the cutaneous reflex that should be carried out if a person steps on a nail. cutaneous receptors send afferents to spinal cord through several interneurons to activate flexors/inhibit extensors on the same leg and inhibit flexors and activate extensors on the opposite leg
What is the NT used by inhibitory interneurons? glycine
What structure is made of intra-spinal connections to allow for things like arm swing and stepping? fasciculus proprius
What types of substances/signals can influence interneuronal populations responsible for locomotion? several classes of drugs and NTs, supraspinal control
Which neurons are necessary to initiate stepping forward to walk? rhythm generator neurons
What is the purpose of the commissural interneurons? work to keep both sides in phase when walking
Which neurons modulate or change the pattern of locomotion most exclusively? patterning network interneurons
How were the central pattern generator neurons (CPG) affected in the experiments with cats who had high spinal cord injuries? Minimally, they were still able to interpret sensory data and generate a rhythmical stepping motion
Created by: sirprakes