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AP Psych

Key Terms

emerged from the work of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner. emphasizes observable behavior that can be objectively measured behavioral perspective
emerged from work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow; emphasizes importance of self-esteem, free will, and choice in human behavior humanistic perspective
emerged from the work of Sigmund Freud; emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective
compares the mind to a computer that encodes, processes, and stores information; emphasizes thinking, percieving, and information processing cognitive perspective
emphasizes genetics, the roles of various parts of the brain, and the structure and function of individual nerve cells biological perspective
influenced by Charles Darwin; emphasizes the role played by natural selection and adaptation in the evolution of behavior and mental processes evolution perspective
carefully controlled scientific procedure involving manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect experimental method
variables that have an unwanted influence on the outcome of an experiment confounding varibale
an in-depth examination of a single research participant case-study
researcher observes or measures two or more naturally occuring variables to find the relationship between them; researcher does not directly manipulate the variables correlation research
numerical value from +1 and -1 that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables; positive correlation indicates two variables vary in same direction; negative is in opposite directoins; zero is no relationship correlation coefficient
a measure of variability that indicates the average differences between the scores and their mean standard deviation
bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristic through a population; half the scores are above the mean and half are below the mean normal distribution
contains more scores on the low end of the scale; mean is higher than the median positively skewed distribution
contaims more scores on the high end of hte scale; mean is higher than the median negatively skewed distribution
the probability of concluding that a difference exists when in fact the difference does not exist; a statistically significant difference is a difference not likely due to chance p-value
highly specialized nerve cell responsible for receiving and transmitting information in electrical and chemical forms; the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system neuron
a white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons, which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon myelin sheath
a brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron action potential
the principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur all-or-nothing law
chemical substances in the nervous system that reduce the perception of pain endorphins
chemical transmitters manufactured by a neuron neurotransmitters
branch of the automatic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to percieved emergencies or threats sympathetic nervous system
branch of autonomic nervous system that calms the body, maintains bodily functions, and conserves energy parasympathetic nervous system
small brain structure beneath the thalamaus that helps govern the release of hormones by the pituitary gland and regulates the drives such as hunger and thirst hypothalamus
thin surface layer on the cerebral hemisphere that regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes such as decision making cerebral cortex
nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex; left hemisphere is verball and analytical functions; right hemisphere is nonverbal abilities like art and music cerebral hemispheres
bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brain's left and right hemispheres; corpus callosum
an almond-shaped part of the limbic system linked to regulation of emotional responses, especially fear amygdala
curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new memories hippocampus
minimum intensity at which a stimulus can be detected at least 50% of the time; absolute threshold
decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus; longer you are exposed to a smell the less you smell it sensory adaptation
process by which sensory receptors convert the incoming physical energy of stimuli, such as light waves, into neural impulses that the brain can understand transduction
states that sensation depends on the characteristics of the stimulus, the background stimulation, and the detector; selective attention enables you to filter out and focus on only selected sensory messages signal detection theory
theory that explains how the nervous system blocks or allows pain signals to pass to the brain gate-control theory
the long, thin visual receptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light, but not color; responsible for peripheral vision and black and white vision rods
the short, thick visual receptor cells, concentrated near the center of the retina, responsible for color vision and fine detail cones
point at the back of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye blind-spot
the coiled, snail-shaped structure in the inner ear containing recpetors for hearing cochlea
biological processes that systematically vary over a period of about 24 hours circadian rhythm
type of sleep during which rapid eye movements and dreams usually occur REM sleep
trancelike state of heightened suggestibilty, deep relaxation, and intense focus hypnosis
splitting of consciousness into two or more simultaneous streams of mental activity dissociation
based upon work of Ivan Pavlov; learning processes that occurs when a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response classical conditioning
a natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning unconditioned stimulus
an unlearned response that is elicted by an unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response
a stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learning neutral stimulus
when paired with the unconditioned stimulus, this occurs as it gains the power to cause a response conditioned stimulus
a learned response elicted by the conditioned stimulus conditioned response
gradual weakening of a conditioned behavior when the conidtioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus extinction
occurs when stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus also elicit the conditioned response; child frightened by rabbit. child sees white fur coat and is frightened stimulus generalization
ability to distinguish between two similar stimuli; person is afraid of poison oak leaves, but not oak tree leaves stimulus discrimination
learning process in which behavior is shaped and maintained by consequences (rewards/punishments) that follow a response operant conditioning
reinforcement strengthens a response and makes it more likely to occur reinforcement
a situation in which behavior or response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimuli; the stimulus increases the probability that the response will occur again positive reinforcement
a situation in which a behavior or response is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus; increases the likelihood of a behavior by enabling a person to either escape an exiting aversive stimulus or avoid and aversive stimulus before it occurs negative reinforcement
states that the opportunity to engage in a preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity premack principle
a reinforcement schedule in which all correct responses are reinforced continuous reinforcement
the technique of strengthing behavior by reinfocing successive approximations of a behavior until the entire correct routine is displayed shaping
the rewarding of some, but not all, correct responses intermittent reinforcement
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; you are paid for every two lawns you mow fixed ratio schedule
reinforcement is unpredicatble because the ratio varies; casino slot machines variable ratio schedule
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; paycheck every friday fixed interval schedule
reinforcement occurs unpredicatblyy since the last time interval varies; teacher gives unannounced pop quizzes variable interval schedule
a process in which a behavior is followed by an aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated punishment
adding an aversive stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur positive punishment
taking away a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to occur negative punishment
occurs by watching others and then imitating or modeling the observed behavior observational learning
the use of a general cue to retrieve a memory; fill in the blank questions recall
the use of specific cue to retrieve a memory; multiple choice test recognition
information at the beginning and end of a list is remembered better than material in the middle serial-position effect
a subdivision of declarative memory that stores memories of personal experiences and events; first prom and first soccer game are examples of these episodic memory
occurs when old information interferes with recalling new information; old locker combination interferes with remembering new locker combination proactive interference
occurs when new information intereferes with recalling old information; writing Euro essay makes it difficult to remember how to write and U.S. essay retroactive interference
people who suffer from this are unable to remember some or all of their past retrograde amnesia
people who suffer from this are unable to form new memories anterograde amnesia
process of remembering several pieces of information by mentally associating an image of each with a different location method of loci
the smallest distinctive sound used in a language; t in tardy and 'ng' in sing phonemes
smallest unit of meaning in a language; untouchable has three of these: 'un' 'touch' and 'able' morphemes
a logical, step by step procedure that, if followed correctly, will eventually solve a specific problem algorithm
tendency to think of an object as functioning only in its usual or customary way; as a result individuals often do not see unusual or innovative uses of familiar objects functional fixedness
a preference for information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discovering contradictory evidence confirmation bias
a general rule of thumb or shortcut that is used to reduce the number of possible solutions heuristic
judging the likelihood of an even based on readily available personal experiences or news reports; news of plane crash causes family to cancel plane reservation availability heuristic
judging the likelihood of an event based on how well it matches a typical example or prototype; if someone is 6'4" and weighs 290, he may be an NFL lineman and not a stockbroker representative heuristic
a type of thinking in which problem solvers devise a number of possible alternative approaches; a major element in creativity divergent thinking
an optimal level of psychological arousal helps performance; when arousal is too low, our minds wander and we become bored; we arousal is too high, we become too anxious and 'freeze-up' yerkes-dodson law
Maslow's theory that lower motives must be met before advancing to higher needs hierarchy of needs
the drive to succeed, especially in competition with others; individuals who have a strong need for achievement seek out tasks that are moderately difficult achievement motivation
based upon external rewards or threats of punishment; james tutors because he wants extra money extrinsic motivation
based upon personal enjoyment of a task or activity; robbie tutors becasue he enjoys helping otheres intrinsic motivation
cultural norms that influence how and when emotional responses are displayed display rules
our subjective experience of emotion follows our experience of physiological changes (we feel sorry because we cry) james-lange theory
physical arousal and cognitive labeling of that arousal produce our subjective experience of emotions schachter-singer two-factor theory
an emotional response to demands that are perceived as threatening or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope stress
occurs when a person is forced to choose between two or more opposing goals or desires conflict
Hans Seyle's three-stage reaction to stress (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) general adaptation syndrome
measures a single individual or group of individuals over an extended period of time longitudinal method
compares individuals of various ages at one point in time cross-sectional method
a concept of framework that organizes and interprets information schema
the process of absorbing new information into an existing schema assimilation
the process of adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to incorporate new information accomodation
an infant's understading that objects or people continue to exist even when they cannot be directly seen, heard, or touched object permanence
the child's inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations irreversibility
understanding that certain physical characteristics remain unchanged, even when their outward appearance changes conservation
parents set few rules, make minimal demands, and allow their children to reach their own conclusions permissive style of parenting
parents set firm rules, make reasonable demands, and listen to their children's viewpoints while still insisting on responsible behavior authoritative style of parenting
parents set rigid rules, enforce strict punishments, and rarely listen to their child's point of view authoritarian style of parenting
Erik Erikson's theory that individuals pass through eight developmental stages, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved psychosocial stages
according to Freud, this is completely unconscious; consists of innate sexual and aggresive instincts and drives; impulsive, irrational, and immature; pleasure principle and seeks to acheive immeadiate satisfaction the id
according to Freud, this is partly conscious; consists of internalized parental and societal standards; opeartes on morality principle; seeks to enforce ethical conduct the superego
according to Freud, this resides in the conscious and preconscious levels of awareness; is rational and practical; operates on reality principle, seeking to mediate between the demands of the id and superego the ego
in Freudian theory, the ego's protective method of reducing anxiety and distorting reality defense mechanisms
Freud's first and most basic defense mechanisms; prevents unaccetpable impulses from coming into conscious awareness self-efficacy
individuals who accept personal responsibility for their life experiences have this internally; people who believe that most situations are governed by change have this externally locus of control
trait theory of personality that includes openness, conscientousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism five-factor method
the notion, proposed by Charles Spearman, of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person's overall performance on tests of mental ability G factor
aspects of innate intelligence, including reasoning abilities, memory, and speed of information processing, that are relatively independant of education and tend to decline as people age fluid intelligence
knowledge and skills gained through experience and education that tend to increase over the life span crystallized intelligence
establishment of norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test standaradization
measure of consistency and reproducibiltiy of test scores during repeated administration of a test reliability
the ability to test to measure what it is designed to measure vailidity
observations or behavrios that result primarily from expectations self-fulfilling prophecy
characterized by a strong, irrational fear of specific objects or situations that are normally considered harmless phobia
characterized be persistant, repetitive, and unwanted thoughts and behaviors obsessive-compulsive disorder
characterized by intense feelings of anxiety, horrow, and helplessness after experiencing a traumatic event post-traumatic stress disorder
characterized by periods of both depression and mania bipolar disorder
characterized by physical complaints about conditions that are caused by pscyhological factors somatoform disorder
group of sever disorders involving major distubrnaces in perception, language, thought, emotion, and balance, delusional beliefs, hallucinations, and disorganized speech and thought schizophrenia
characterized by grandiose sense of self-importance, fantasies of unlimited success, need for excessive admiration, and a willingness to exploit others to achieve personal growth narcissistic personality disorder
involve a splitting apart of significant aspects of a person's awareness, memory, or identity dissociative disorder
Fruedian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to childhood experiences, into consciousness psychoanalysis
therapy that treats problem behaviors and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs cognitive therapy
albert Ellis's cognitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through the rational examination of irrational beliefs rational emotive therapy
focuses on removing obstacles that block personal growth and potential humanistic therapy
Carl roger's therapy emphasizing the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive; techniques include empathy, unconditional positive regard, an active listening client-centered therapy
group of techniques that use the principles of classical conditioning, operant learning, and observational learning to modify maladaptive behaviors behavior therapy
a gradual process of extinguishing a learned phobia by working through a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed systematic desensitization
uses the princples of classical conditioning to create anxiety by pairing an aversive stimulus with a maladaptive behvario aversion therapy
uses drugs and electroconvulsive therapy to treat psychological disorders biomedical therapy
the widespread tendency to overemphasive dispositional factors and to underestimate situational factors when making attributions about the cause of another person's behavior fundamental attribution error
tendency for people to take credit for their successes while at the same time attributing their failures to external situations beyond their control self-serving bias
when people make decisions based upon factual information, logical arguments, and a thoughtful analysis of pertinent detail; buy a cell phone based upon its price central route to persuasion
when people make decisions based upon emotional appeals and incidental cues; buy a cell phone based on its color and slogan peripheral route to persuasion
the persuasion strategy to getting a person to agree to a modest first request as a set-up for a later much larger request foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the state of psychological tension, anxiety, and discomfort that occurs when an indiviuals attitude and behavior are inconsistant cognitive dissonance
the tendency for an individuals performance to improve when simple tasks are performed in the presence of others social facilitation
the tendency for an individuals performance to decline when complex tasks are performed in front of others social inhibition
the phenomenon of people making less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group rather than when they work alone social loafing
the reduction of self-awareness and personal responsibilty that can occur when a person is part of a group whose members feel anonymous deindividuation
the tendency for people to be less likely to assist in an emergency situation when other people are present bystander effect
the tendency for a group's predominant opinoin to become stronger or more extreme after an issue is discusses group polarization
the tendency for a cohesive decision-making group to ignore or dismiss reasonable alternatives groupthink
tendency for people to adopt the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of other members of groups conformity
the performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status obedience
Created by: kp1793
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