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Cognitive Neurosci

CNS 3rd Exam

Two kinds of knowledge Hard wired and learned
Time scale of storage Sensory, short-term and long-term
Types of memory Declarative/Non-declarative (Procedural) Implicit/explicit
Stages of memory o Encoding o Storage-consolation o Retrieval
Sensory memory Visual (Iconic) Auditory (Echoic)
Evidence for sensory memory Full/partial report
Anterograde amnesia Can’t create new LTM
Retrograde amnesia loss of ability retrieve old memories
Procedural memory knowledge of processes (motor, perceptual or cognitive)
Declarative--episodic knowledge of specific personal experiences, their content, time place (episodes)
Declarative--semantic world, word knowledge
Implicit memory Knowledge that can be retrieved without conscious recollection (Procedural)
Explicit memory knowledge that can be retrieved only with conscious recollection (Declarative)
Priming The improvement in identifying/processing a stimulus as a result of previously processing it Evidence of learning
Encoding Processing incoming info for storage
Consolidation/storage Creating a lasting record
Retrieval Recovering stored info
What does encoding involve? Feature binding and pattern separation
What can lead to false memories? Failure in encoding (feature binding and pattern separation are needed) Failure in retrieval (Pattern completion and evaluation are needed)
Where does sensory memory take place? Sensory areas in the neocortex
Where does working memory take place? Inferior parietal lobe (Supramarginal gyrus) Prefrontal cortex
Where does long term memory consolidation take place? Medial temporal lobe: limbic structures
What is the medial temporal lobe NOT required for? Working memory Procedural memory Ultimate storage of LTM
What is the ultimate storage site of long term memories? Neo-cortical sites
What is frontal lobe memory impairment associated with? High false recognition rates
What is the "subsequent memory paradigm"? Locations where there is activity at encoding leads to better subsequent recollection
What are some examples of executive functions? Working memory Planning Monitoring progress of goals Task switching
What are executive functions needed for? Encoding Retrieval
Role of the MTL and diencephalon Creating and consolidating declarative memories
Role of the Neocortex Creating new procedural memories Implicit memory retrieval Eventual storage site of LTM Priming
Role of Frontal lobes Encoding and retrieval Working memory
How is the pattern of memory loss in progressive brain disease sufferers determined? By which brain areas are affected/where the disease starts
What are the two learning systems? Neocortex and hippocampus
How does the neocortex learn? Slowly, by making small adjustments to connections among neurons, allowing integration into complex knowledge structures
How does the hippocampus learn? Quickly, rapidly and during consolidation "teaches" the neocortex until connection changes are robust
How do explicit and implicit recall fit into the two learning systems? Declarative information is processed by the hippocampus, which alters connections (consolidation) in the neocortex. Procedural info/priming is processed in the neocortex.
Created by: cszabolong
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