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QuestionAnswer
a predicion of the course of a disease prognosis
a body structure located on or near the belly ventral
the heart and blood vessels are organs that form the cardiovascular system
the determination of the nature of a disease diagnosis
one who studies disease pathologist
a symptom marked by a body temperature that exceeds the normal fever
a cephalic symptom is a sensation head
an adjective that describes a disease of short duration chronic
the elbow is distal to the shoulder
the most basic form of life cell
the type of tissue that consists of tightly packed cells that often form a protective barrier epithelial tissue
the substance within the nucleus of a cell that contains roughly 30,000 genes DNA
anything that causes mutations that result in tumor development carcinogenic
a treatment intended to reduce pain during treatment without contributing palliative
a physician who specializes in the treatment of cancer oncologist
a collection of pus from a localized infection abscess
a loss/lack of scalp hair (baldness) alopecia
an injury to the skin causing discoloration and swelling without breaking the skin surface (bruise) contusion
a closed sac or pouch that contains fluid cyst
a scar cicatrix
swelling caused by accumulation of fluid (in tissue) edema
profuse (not necessarily excessive) sweating diaphoresis
a torn or jagged wound laceration
an eroded lesion of the skin or mucous membrane ulcer
an inflammation of skin originating from an infection of connective tissue within the dermis cellulitis
a skin sore caused by pressure or immobility while lying down (bedsore) decubitus ulcer
tissue death and decay caused by loss or reduction of blood supply gangrene
a chronic skin condition characterized by red lesions covered with silvery scales psoriasis
a form of skin cancer characterized by formation of purple or brown patches on the skin that spread by way of lymphatics; used as a sign of AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma
characterized by redness, blisters, scaling, and sensations of itching/burning eczema
a precancerous skin condition caused by exposure to sunlight; marked by overgrowths of outer epidermal layer actinic keratosis
a tumor that arises from epithelium of epidermis; can spread locally if not treated but seldom metastasizes basal cell carcinoma
abnormal deposit of uric acid crystals in the joints(usually the big toe) gout
abnormal enlargement of joint at base of big toe bunion
a break in a bone fracture
abnormal, sudden, involuntary muscle contractions or series of alternating muscle contractions/relaxations spasm
"prolonged", involuntary muscular contractions cramps
an artificial substitute for a missing body part prosthesis
sate of rigidity of muscle during which the muscle is unable to contract rigor
involuntary shaking of the limbs tremor
disorder characterized by intruisive, unwanted thoughts causing repetitive acts/rituals obsessive-compulsive disorder
sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time transient ischemic attack
group of diagnostic tests to determine brain function in presence of particular stimuli evoked potential studies
progressive muscle atrophy caused by hardening of nerve tissue on lateral spinal cord amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
insertion of needle into subarchnoid space usually between L3 and 4 to remove CSF lumbar puncture
paralysis of localized area; most common in facial muscles paralyzed on one side palsy
viral infection of peripheral nerves/erupts as painful skin blisters along nerve tract shingles
inflammation of sciatic nerve producing pain that extends from thigh to toe sciatica
type of cerebral vascular disease where blood vessel that supplies the brain becomes dilated due to a weakening of its wall cerebral aneurysm
disorder in which main symptom is seizures epilepsy
sudden attack with involuntary series of contractions(synonymous with convulsions) seizures
"chronic" degenerative disease of the CNS. symptoms include tremors/shuffling gait Parkinson's disease
"jarring/shaking" that results in an injury concussion
interruption of blood supply to the brain caused by a cerebral thrombosis, embolism, or hemorrhage verebrovascular accident
disease characterized by early senility,loss of recongnition of person, confusion Alzheimer's disease
state of profound unconsciousness coma
"degenerative" disease characterized by sclerotic patches along brain/spinal cord multiple sclerosis
fainting/sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to cerebrum syncope
Defective curvature of the refractive surface (lens) of the eye Astigmatism
Clouding of the lens of the eye Cataract
Farsightedness Hyperopia
Nearsightedness Myopia
Loss of vision resulting from increased ocular pressure which damages optic nerve Glaucoma
Infection of the oil gland of the eyelid (also called hordeolum) Stye or Sty
Dizziness (sense that one's body or enviroment is revolving) Vertigo
Sharpness of vision for either distance for near Visual Acuity
Chronic disease of inner ear characterized by dizziness/ringing of the ear/hearing loss Meniere Disease
Ringing in the ear Tinnitus
procedure for treatment of nearsightedness in which a laser used to reshape corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea LASIK
surgical removal of the eye enucleation
ear wax cerumen
health professional who prescribes corrective lens optometrist
specialist who fills prescriptions for lenses optician
blood test to determine amount of glucose (sugar) in blood after fasting fasting blood sugar
sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in a living organism metabolism
nuclear medicine test that shows size, shape and position of the thyroid gland using radioactive substance thyroid scan
blood test that measures the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood (hypo or hyperthyroidism) thyroid-stimulating hormone level
group of symptoms attributed to excessive production of cortical by adrenal cortices Cushing's syndrome
chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism (under activity of islets of Langerhans) diabetes mellitus
disorder of thyroid gland characterized by presence of "hyperthyroidism", goiter, etc Graves' Disease
chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex Addison's Disease
enlargement of thyroid gland goiter
an experience of pounding, racing, or skipping of the heartbeat. palpitation
bulging of an arterial wall caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness of arterial wall produced as blood is pushed against it. aneurysm
cessation of heart activity. cardiac arrest
chronic condition characterized by inability of left ventricle to pump enough blood through the body to adequately supply systemic tissue. congestive heart failure
generalized condition of arteries of heart, characterized by reduction of blood flow to heart wall (mostly caused by atherosclerosis). coronary atrery disease
abnormal presence of stationary blood clots within deep veins of leg. deep vein thrombosis
uncoordinated, rapid contractions of ventricles or atria resulting in circulatory collapse. fibrillation
acute episode during which heart fails to pump blood effectively. (HA) Also called myocardial infarction (MI) (death of portion of myocardium. heart attack
physical exam that consists of listening to internal sounds using a stethoscope. auscultation
insertion of a narrow flexible tube, or catheter, through a coronary blood vessel to withdraw blood samples, measure pressures, and inject contrast medium for imaging purposes. cardiac catherization
battery-powered device implanted under the skin and wired to the SA nodes; produces timed electrical pulses that replace the pacemaking function of the SA node. cardiac pacemaker
emergency response procedure that includes artificial ventilation and external heart massage in an effort to resuscitate (revive) the patient. cardiopulmonary resuscitation
surgical procedure to which a blood vessel if removed from another part of the body and inserted in the coronary circulation to bypass blood flow around an occluded (blocked) coronary artery. coronary artery bypass
a plastic scaffold used to anchor a surgical implantation (graft), implanted in a coronary artery to prevent closure of artery after angioplasty, etc. coronary stent
electrical charge to heart in effort to defibrillate (stop fibrillation) of heart. defibrillation
portable electrocardiograph worn by patient; monitors electrical activity of heart over 24 hr period (detect periodic/transient abnormalities). Holter ambulatory monitor
abnormal condition of dilated veins varicosis
caused by HIV, which disables the immune response AIDS
response to an allergen, produces a hypersensitivity reaction allergy
diseases that is caused by a person's own immune response attacking healthy tissues autoimmune disorder
poisoning caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with the toxin produced by the bacterium botulism
bleeding disorder that results from defective clotting proteins hemophilia
cancer of lymphatic tissue, elargement of lymph nodes, fatigue, immune deficiency Hodgkin's disease
anemia that is caused by a lack of iron, which results in smaller red blood cells containing deficient levels of hemoglobin iron deficiency anemia
viral disease characterized by enlaged lymph nodes, atpical lymphocytes, sore throat, fever, and fatigue mononucleosis
disorder that usually consists of bacterial infections contracted during a hospital stay nosocomial infections
anemia caused by an inadequate supply of folic acid, resulting in red blood cells that are large, varied in shape, and reduced in number pernicious enemia
systemic disease caused by the presence of bacteria and their toxins in the circulating blood septicemia
disease caused by a powerful neurotoxin released by the common bacterium Clostridium tetani tetanus
a chemical agent that reduces the clotting process anticoagulant
transfusion of blood donated by a patient for personal use autologous transfusion
tests on blood samples to measure the levels of particular components blood chemistry
a timed blood test to determine the time required for a blood clot to form coagulation time
a common laboratory blood test that provides diagnostic information of a patient's general health complete blood count
transfusion of blood that is voluntarily donated by another person homologous transfusion
procedure that provides immunity against a particular antigen immunization
any preparation used to activate an immune response vaccine
measures the number of white blood cells per cubic centimeter white blood count
a nosebleed epistaxis
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs hyperventilation
expectorated matter, usually contains mucus and sometimes pus sputum
absence of respiratory ventilation; suffocation asphyxia
a group of disorders (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and bronchospasm) associated w/the obstruction of bronchial airflow; usally a result of inhaling tobacco products for many years chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
disease of infants and young children; caused by acute obstruction of the larynx & characterized by a hoarse cough croup
chronic lung diseease charcterized by enlarged alveoli & damaged respiratory membrane; symptoms include apnea, a barrel chest due to labored breathing, and gradual deterioration due to chronic hypoxemia emphysema
collapse of the pharynx during sleep; results in airway obstruction & the absence of breathing obstructive sleep apnea
escape of fluid into the pleural cavity during inflammation; results in compression of the underlying part of the affected lung pleural effusion
blockage in the pulmonary circulation caused by a moving blood clot pulmonary embolism
infection of the upper respiratory tract, usually the result of a virus upper respiratory infection
removal of fluid with suction aspiration
physical examination listening to sounds within the body often with the aid of a stethoscope auscultation
insertion of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway endotracheal intubation
drug that breaks up mucus & promotes coughing to remove it expectorant
device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist & deliver it to the lungs with the aid of a deep inhalation nebulizer
diagnostic tests performed to determine the cause of lung disease by evaluationg lung capacity through the use of spirometry pulmonary function test
artificial respiration used to restore breathing resuscitation
technique used by respiratory therapist to provide assisted breathing with the use of a ventilator which pushes air into the patient's airway mechnical ventilation
clinical test on blood to identify levels of O2/CO2 arterial blood gases
accumulation of fluid within peritoneal cavity ascites
reduced peristalsis in large intestines resulting in infrequent defecation constipation
frequent discharge of watery fecal material diarrhea
condition of gas trapped in GI tract or released through the anus flatus
yellowish staining of the skin, sclera, deep tissue caused by bile accumulation jaundice
symptomatic urge to vomit nausea
backward flow of material in GI tract (regurgitation) reflux
abnormal growth that connects two surfaces (complication to healing) adhesions
behavioral eating disorder/extreme aversion to food/malnutrition anorexia nervosa
behavioral eating disorder/repeated gorging with food/induced vomiting bulimia nervosa
ulcer in the wall of the duodenum duodenal ulcer
infolding of segment of intestine within another segment intussusception
chronic disease characterized by periodic disturbances of large intestinal function; abdominal pain due to accumulation of gas/muscle spasms irritable bowel syndrome
any abnormal mass of tissue that projects outward from a wall (usually benign) polyp
lab test performed to detect blood in the feces fecal occult blood test
cleansing procedure in which stomach is rinsed with saline solution gastric lavage
process of feeding a patient through tube inserted into the nose and drops into the stomach (feeding tube or nasogastric tube) gavage
collection of fecal (stool) sample to identity pathogenic cause of disease stool culture and sensitivity
abnormal narrowing... ie of ureter, etc stricture
acute stoppage of urine formation by the kidneys urinary suppression
abnormal accummulation of urine in urinary bladder; inability to void urinary retention
infection of urethra and bladder, symptoms include fever and dsysuria urinary tract infection
elevated blood pressure caused by kidney disease renal hypertension
involuntary discharge of urine incontinence
involuntary release of urine at night due to lack of bladder control (bed-wetting) nocturnal enuresis
clinical lab test that measures urea concentration in a sample of blood as and indicator of kidney function; elevated value indicates kidney disease blood urea nitrogen
protein that is a normal component of urine as a result of muscle metabolism; elevated levels in a urine sample indicated kidney disease creatinine
clinical lab tests performed on a urine specimen, often measuring specific gravity, creatinine, glucose, protein, and pH urinalysis
insertion of a catheter (cath), a flexible tube for channeling fluids into the urinary bladder to drain urine uninary catheter
procedure in which toxic wastes are removed from the peritoneal cavity reservoir by artificial filtration as a cleansing treatment to compensate for kidney disease peritoneal dialysis
surgical procedure that destroys living tissue with an electric spark; commonly used to remove tumors or polyps from interior bladder wall fulguration
procedure that removes nitrogenous wastes/excess ions from blood; replaces normal function of the kidneys as an intervention for kidney failure; forces patients' blood through cellophane membraines to be filtered hemodialysis
non-malignant excessive growth of Prostate Gland that results in constriction of the urethra Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
inability to achieve/maintain an erection sufficient to perform sexual intercourse; also called impotency Erectile Dysfunction
induration (hardness) of erectile tissue within penis which can cause ED, can cause curvature to penis if induration is asymmetric(sides not balanced) Peyronie's Disease
congenital narrowing of prepuce opening that prevents it form being drawn back over glans penis...glans penis can become strangulated and produce an emergency situation Phimosis
procedure in which semen is introduced into the female reproductive tract using a method other than coitus Artificial Insemination
surgical removal of prepuce (usually after birth) to reduce risk of future infections; involves making a incision around base of prepuce Circumcision
physical examination involving insertion of a finger into rectum to feel the size/shape of prostate gland through wall of rectum;used to screen the patient for BPH and prostate cancer Digital Rectal Examination
clinical test that measure blood levels of protein; elevated levels suggest probable presence of prostate cancer and is often used to evaluate cancer treatment progress Prostate-Specific Antigen
placement of an ultrasound probe into rectum to form sound waves that are converted to a image of region; used to visualize, diagnose, and help treat prostate cancer Transrectal Ultrasound
used to treat when urethra is obstructed; involves resection of prostate tissue using a retroscope inserted through the urethra; outer covering of prostate and as much tissue as possible is left in tact Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Gland
Small ulcers on skin; symptom of STD syphilis Chancres
wart-like lesions of skin/mucous membranes (genital warts) Papillomas
Acquired mainly through exchange of body fluids during sex or by use of contaminated IV needles Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
most common bacteria-caused; symptoms include arthritis, proctitis and inflammation of the eye's conjunctiva Chlamydia
caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 characterized by periodic outbreaks of ulcer-like lesions of genital and anorectal skin/mucous membranes Genital herpes
Bacteria-caused, produces ulcer like lesions on mucous membranes and skin of genital region; characterized by urethral discharge Gonorrhea
Viral; causes inflammation of the liver/transmitted through body fluid Hepatitis B
Caused by bacteria called a spirochete; transmitted by direct sexual contact and usually first expressed on the skin by red, painless papules that erode to form small ulcers known as chancres Syphilis
Caused by protozoan which infects the urethra and prostate gland Trichomoniasis
an abnormally persistent erection of the penis, often accompanied by pain and tenderness; usually caused by drug overdose Priapism
precancerous form of cervical cancer cancer in situ
painful or difficult sexual intercourse dyspareunia
abnormal passage from one hollow organ to another fistula
inflammation of the female organs within the pelvic cavity pelvic inflammatory diseas
"collection" of symptoms such as tension, irritability, mastalgia, edema, and headache that usually strike during 10 days prior to menstruation premenstrual syndrome
displacement of uterus that results in a downward location, often crowding the vagina; also referred to as hysteroptosis prolapsed uterus
infectious disease characterized by rapid onset of symptoms such as high fever, skin rash, diarrhea, vomiting, and myalgia ... followed by hypotension leading shock and, in severe cases, death ... liked to noncotton tampon use toxic shock syndrome
surgical repair of a protrusion of the bladder against the anterior vaginal wall and protrusion of the rectum against the posterior vaginal wall anterior and posterior colporrhaphy
dilation of the cervix and scraping of the endometrial in order to control bleeding; obtain a tissue sample for biopsy, or remove polyps dilation and curettage
a diagnostic procedure in which a sample of cells from the cervix and vagina removed/examined microscopically for abnormalities Papanicolaou smear
sterilization procedure by ligating (cutting and tying) the fallopian tubes tubal ligation
instrument for opening the vaginal orifice to permit visual examination of the vagina and beyond vaginal speculum
congenital abnormality in which roof of mouth fails to close during prenatal development leaving a fissure cleft palate
abnormal childbirth in which the buttocks,feet,or knees emerge first breech birth
congenital disorder caused by genetic defect in chromosome 21, resulting in degrees of mental retardation/other physical defects Down syndrome
pregnancy that occurs outside of the uterus ectopic pregnancy
abnormal development of high blood pressure that may be accompanied with proteinuria and edema, all due to toxemia during pregnancy preeclampsia
condition caused by alcohol ingestion during pregnancy/can cause dysfunction and growth abnormalities in the newborn fetal alcohol syndrome
congenital defect of vertebral column; results from an absence of the vertebral arches and often leads to severe inflammation of the spinal meninges spina bifida
termination of pregancy by expulsion of embryo or fetus from uterus abortion
premature seperation of placenta from uterine wall; results in either premature birth or fetal death abruption placentae
abnormally present at birth congenital anomaly
condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during pregnancy eclampsia
ultrasound imaging of the pregnant uterus to observe fetal development; the ultrasoun image is call a sonogram obstetrical sonography
surgical delivery by making an incision through the abdomen and uterus cesarean section
termination of pregnancy by artificially induced expulsion of the embryo or fetus by means of either surgery or drugs therapeutic abortion
Created by: waynestradling