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APES Test 8

Populations

QuestionAnswer
this studies the dynamic of species' populations and how these populations interact with the environment population ecology
this allows ecologists to predict the long-term probability of a species persisting in a given habitat population viability analysis (PVA)
the advantages of living in groups increased protection from predators, increased chances for mating, and division of labor
this refers to the number of organisms that can be supported in a given area sustainably carrying capacity
factors that keep population sizes in balance with the carrying capacity are called this regulating factors
name examples of regulating factors food availability, space, oxygen content in aquatic ecosystems, nutrient levels in soil profiles, and amount of sunlight
this is the maximum rate at which a population can grow biotic potential
factors that influence biotic potential include age at reproduction, frequency of reproduction, number of offspring produced, reproductive life span, and average death rate under ideal conditions
when a population in a community is left unchecked, the maximum population growth rate can increase exponentially forming this curve J-shaped curve
this shaped curve is used to describe the pattern of growth over extended period of time when organisms move into an empty niche S-shaped curve
growth rates are ______ - dependant density
this shaped curve shows population size increase initially but as resources become limited the population growth rate slows down and stabilizes around the limits of the carrying capacity S-shaped curve
species that have high reproductive rates r-strategists
species that reproduce later in life and with fewer offspring k-strategist
characteristics of r-strategist mature rapidly, short lived, tend to be prey, many offspring (overproduce), low parental care, generally not endangered, tend to be small
characteristics of k-strategists mature slowly, long lived, tend to be both predator and prey, have few offspring, high parental care, most are endangered species, tend to be larger
this curve shows age distribution characteristics of species, reproductive strategies, and life history survivorship curves
this is measured by how many organisms are able to mature and reproduce reproductive success
what are the three survivorship curves? I Late Loss; II Constant Loss; III Early Loss
this survivorship curve has reproduction occurs fairly early in life; low mortality at birth; high probability of surviving to advanced age; longer life spans; humans, sheep, elephants I Late Loss curve
this survivorship curve has individuals of all age categories have fairly uniform death rates; predation affects all age categories; typical of organisms that reach adult stages quickly; rodents and songbirds II Constant Loss
this survivorship curve is typical of speices that have great numbers of offspring and reproduce for most of their lives; death is prevalent for younger members of species and declines with age; sea turtles, trees, fish, oysters III Early Loss curve
different factors that affect the human population historical population sizes, population distribution, fertility rates, growth rates, doubling times, and demographic transition
what has the rapid growth in the world's human population been due to? a decrease in death rates
several factors that have reduced death rates increased food and better distribution causing better nutrients; improved medical and health; improved sanitation and personal hygiene; safer water supplies
surges in population are attributed to three factors use of tools and fire; agricultural revolution where humans stopped being hunter-gatherers and raised crops; industrial and medical revolution withing last 200 years
how do you calculate population change? add crude birth rate and immigration then subtract from the sum of crude death rate and emigration
where will most of the population growth occur? less-developed countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America
this worldview is viewing underdeveloped lands as a hostile wilderness to be cleared and planted, then exploited for its resources as quickly possible frontier worldview
this worldview is beliefs that as the planet's most important species, we are in charge of Earth; our success depends on how well we manage Earth's life-support system mostly for our own benefit; we will not run out of resources planetary management
this worldview is beliefs that nature exists for all Earth's species and we are not in charge of the Earth; resources are limited and should not be wasted; our success depends on learning how Earth sustains itself and integrating such lessons from nature Earth wisdom
this is the level of fertility at which a couple hs only enough children to replace themselves, or about 2 children per couple Replacement level fertility (RLF)
this is the average number of children that each woman will have during her lifetime total fertility rate (TFR)
declines in fertility can be attributed to these factors urbanization results in higher cost of living and less need for children to work land; greater acceptance of contraceptives and abortion; number of females in workforce and education are increasing; postpone marriage until careers are steady
two main affects of Total Fertility Rates less than 2.1 population decline and population aging
this is a rule of thumb that roughly explains the time periods involved in exponential growth at a constant rate Rule of 70
how do you find the doubling time of a quantity growing at a given annual percentage rate? divide the percentage number into 70 to obtain the approximate number of years required to double
how do you find the annual growth rate given the doubling time? you divide 70 by the doubling time
this is the name given to the process that has occurred during the past century demographic transition
the four separate stages of the demographic transition preindustrial, transition, industrial, and postindustrial
in this demographic transition stage, living conditions are sever, medical care is poor, and food supply is limited due to poor agricultural techniques; birth rates are high with high mortality rates pre-industrial stage
this stage in demographic transition has standards of hygiene, advances in medical care, improved sanitation, cleaner water supplies, higher levels of education; upward trend in population size transitional stage
this stage in demographic transition has urbanization that decreases the economic incentive for large families; parents are discouraged to have large families; birth rates decrease and obtaining food is not a major focus each day; industrial stage
this stage of demographic transition are when birth rates equal mortality rates with no population growth; standard of living is higher; birth and death rates are relatively low post-industrial stage
this is a good indicator of future trends in population growth age-structure diagrams
in Mexico. large family size is due to the following necessity for farm labor, need to support parents when they no longer work, need to increase family income, and cultural and religious beliefs
strategies for sustainability provide economic incentives for fewer children; empower and educate women; education leads to higher income and less need for more children; provide government family planning services; improve prenatal and infant health care;increase economic development
what are three areas of great malnutrition Africa, Asia, and Latin America
what factors contribute to malnutrition poverty, droughts, populations surpassed carrying capacity, political instability and wars, pestilence, and foreign investors who own large landholdings and sole motivation is profit
this type of motive results in removing food from countries that grow it and sending food to other countries that are able to pay higher prices profit motives
what is the issue of malnutrition? too many people cannot afford food or food is not distributed efficiently
what are the three methods used to estimate the effects of humans on patters of resource utilization measure net primary productivity; estimate how much impact humans have had on Earth; examine finite resources and from that draw conclusions on increasing productivity
this is the total amount of solar energy converted into biochemical energy through photosynthesis minus the energy needed by those plants for their own metabolic requirements Net primary productivity (NPP)
factors that affect resource utilization carrying capacity, energy resources, environmental degradation, exploitation of natural resources, extinction of animal and plant species, famine, political unrest, population density and size, poverty, and technological development
what was the conference on population and development in Cairo? created a plan that calls for improved healthcare and family planning services for women, children, and families; emphasizes the importance of education for girls as shift to smaller families
Created by: kp1793
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