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APES Test 7

Natural Bio-geochemical Cyles

this is the basic building block of life and the fundamental element found in cabohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids; is exchanged among the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere carbon
what are the major reservoirs of sinks of carbon? plant matter, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sedimentary deposits
what is the largest reservoir of carbon in the carbon cycle limestone
carbon is released back into the atmosphere through these 6 ways cellular respiration of plants and animals, decay of organic material by decomposers, burning fossil fuels, weathering rocks and erosion of limestone, volcanic eruptions, release of carbon dioxide by warmer ocean waters
what is an essential element needed to make amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids; stored in organic matter in the soil and oceans nitrogen
what is the natural cycling of nitrogen? atmospheric nitrogen is converted to nitrogen oxides by lightning and deposited in soil by rain where it is assimilated by plants and either eaten by animals or decomposed back to elemental nitrogen by bacteria
what are the five steps of nitrogen cycle? 1. nitrogen fixation 2. nitrification 3. assimilation 4. ammonification 5. denitrification
this is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia or nitrate ions nitrogen fixation
this is the product of high-energy fixation by lightning, cosmic radiation, or meteorite trails nitrate
this is when atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen combine to form nitrates, which are carried to Earth's surface as nitric acid high-energy fixation
this is when molecular nitrogen is split into two free nitrogen atoms and the nitrogen atoms combine with hydrogen to yield ammonia; accounts for 90% of fixed nitrogen in cycle biological fixation
this is the process in which ammonia is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate nitrification
these are the form of nitrogen most commonly assimilated by plants through their root hairs nitrates
this is the process in which nitrates are reduced to gaseous nitrogen denitrification
effects of nitrogen oxides causes tropospheric ozone production and contributes to smog and acid rain and increases nitrogen inputs to ecosystem
effects of ammonia acts as an aerosol and decreases air quality
effects of nitrous oxides significant greenhouse gas, has deletrious effects in the stratosphere where it breaks down and acts as a catalyst in the destruction of atmospheric ozone
ways that human activity have doubled the transfer of nitrogen into biological available forms extensive cultivation of legumes, extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pollution emmiting vehicles, biomass burning, cattle and feedlots, and industrial processes
this is essential for the production of nucleotides, production of ATP, fats in cell membranes, bones, teeth, and shells; not found in atmosphere but in sedimentary rocks and does not depend on action of bacteria phosphorus
how does the phosphorus cycle work? phosphorus is slowly released from terrestrial rocks by weathering and the action of acid rain; then it dissolves into the soil and is taken up by plants
ways humans have impacted the phosphorus cycle mined large amounts of rocks with phosphorus for inorganic fertilizers; clear-cutting tropical habitats decreases amount available; allow runoff from feedlots which collects in water; humans apply phosphorus-rich fertilizers to fields
how does the sulfur cycle work? sulfur is released from rocks or volcanoes in form of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide; this is converted to sulfur trioxide and eventually to tiny droplets of sulfuric acid which mixes with rain to fall to Earth and is known as acid rain
ways that human contribute to adding sulfur to the sulfur cycle refining and burning fossil fuels and by converting sulfur-containing metallic mineral ores into free metals such as copper, lead, and zinc
what is the water cycle powered by? the sun
the water cycle is in a state of ___________ by which the rate of evaporation equals the rate of precipitation dynamic equilibrium
what are the processes involved in the water cycle evaporation, evapotranspiration, condensation, infiltration, runoff, and precipitation
human impacts on the water cycle withdrawing water from lakes, aquifers, and rivers; clearing of land for agriculture and urbanization; agriculture; destruction of wetlands; pollution of water; sewage and feelot runoff; building power plants
this law states that during an ordinary chemical change, there is no detectable increase or decrease in the quantity of matter law of conservation of matter
this law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can change its form law of conservation of energy
Created by: kp1793
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