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A&P ch 21 blood

The cardiovascular system: Blood vessels & heodynamics

What are Arteries elastic & muscular, vessels that carry blood away from the heart
all except _____ pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood pulmonary artery
artery divide into smaller vessels called the arterioles
what do veins do vessels that carry blood toward the heart
all except ____carry deoxygenated blood pulmonary veins
what are merging small veins called venules
what are capillaries microscopic vessels that carry blood from arterioles to venules
what are the types of capillaries true, continuous, & fenestrated
What are the 3 coats of arteries & veins -Outer coat(tunica adventita or externa), Musle coat(tunica media), Lining(tunica intima) Taemi veins-same 3 coats but thinner & fewer elastic fibers
what is the Outer coat tunica adventita or externa white fibrous tissue
what is the Muscle coat tunica media smooth muscle, elastic & fibrous tissue
what is the lining tunica intima endothelium; simple squamous epithelium
what is the layer of capillaries only tunica intima<allows diffusion to be easier b/c it is thin>
what is the function of arteries/arterioles carry blood away from heart to capillaries
what is the function of capillaries deliver materials to cells & collect substances from them; vital function of entire circulatory system
what is the function of veins/venules carry blood from capillaries back to heart
what is the definition of circulation blood flow through closed circuit of vessels<stays within>
what are the types of circulation systemic & pulmonary circulation
what is systemic circulation blood flow from left ventricle into aorta to all parts of body & back to right atrium of heart. <aorta=oxygenated>
what is pulmonary circulation blood flow from right ventricle to pulmonary artery to lungs to pulmonary veins to left atrium
control of arterial blood pressure is imp b/c it maintains appropriate blood flow
what is the primary determinant of arterial pressure is what volume of blood in arteries
what are the most imp factors that influence arterial volume which influences arterial pressure Cardiac output & peripheral resistance
what is CO cardiac output
CO is determined by ? stroke volume & heart rate(SVxHR=CO)
what is stroke volume is the force or strength of ventricular contraction; determined by starling's law of the heart
what is heart rate regulated by baroreceptors
Peripheral resistance is determined by ? blood viscosity & arteriole diameter
blood viscosity is determined by? concentration of blood protein & blood cells;less viscosity, less peripheral resistance<plasma protein-albium can effect viscosity>
vasomotor or vasoconstrictor control mechanisms that are imp in ?? control of changes in diameter of arterioles,center located in medulla
what is the movement of water & dissolved substances, except proteins through walls, mostly by diffusion, dependent on several opposing forces or pressure Capillaries exchange
what are the diff types pressure in capillary exchange Hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressures,net filtration pressure or effective filtration pressure
pressure of water of water in fluids hydrostatic pressure
what is blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP) moves fluid out of capillaries into interstitial fluid; 35mm hg aterial , 16mm Venous
what is Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFHP) moves fluid out of interstitial fluid & into capillaries, 0 mm Hg both ends
what is osmotic pressure due to presence of nondiffusible proteins in blood & interstitial fluid
what is blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) moves fluid from interstitial spaces into capillaries; 26 both ends
what is interstitial fluid osmotic pressure (IFOP) moves fluid out of capillaries & into interstitial fluid; 1 mm both ends
what is net filtration pressure (NFP) or effective filtration pressure (BHP + IFOP)- (IFHP+BCOP) pulling fluid pulling fluid out back in
what is starling's law of capillaries equilibrium between fluid out & fluid in wth lymphatics,<wtv not put back in, is picked up by lymphatic system; what goes out must be the same when in comes back in can cause edema>
what are factors that influence the venous return to the heart respirations-the deeper the respirations,the greater the venous tends to be; skeletal muscle contractions serve as 'booster pumps" that tend to increase venous return
what is blood pressure measured by; what are the normal range for systolic & diastolic it measured with sphygmomanometer,systolic=120-140 mm Hg, diastolic=80-90mm Hg
how does the arterial bleeding happen in spurts b/c of difference in amounts of systolic & diastolic pressure
how does the venous bleeding happen slow & steady b/c of low, practically constant venous pressure
how fast does blood flow in the arteries & capillaries rapid in arteries ; slowest in capillaries
what is a pulse & how is caused alternate expansion & recoil of artery; caused by intermittent ejections of blood from heart into aorta with each ventricular contraction; pulse can be felt b/c of elasticity of arterial walls
what is a pulse wave stars @ beginning of aorta & proceeds as wave of expansion throughout arteries
where can pulse be felt radial, temporal,carotid, facial, brachial, femoral, popliteal, pedal
what is the venous pulse in large veins only, caused by changes in venous pressure brought about by alternate contraction & relation of atria
what are the 4 big diff in fetal circulation 1.connections to mom, umbilical veins taking oxygenated blood 2. ductus venosus 3. hole btwn right atrium & left atrium called foreman ovale 4.dutus artenosus connections btw Pulmonary artery & aorta 5. Umbilical arteries
1. Angiogenesis growth of new blood vessels
2. Varicose veins or varices Leaky venous valves can cause veins to become dilated & twisted in appearance; most common in superficial veins of the lower limbs.
3. Edema filtration greatly exceeds reabsorption, an abnormal increase in interstitial fluid volume
4. Syncope or fainting, is a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness that is not due to head trauma, followed by recovery, most commonly due to cerebral ischemia (lack of sufficient blood to the brain)
5. Carotid sinus massage carefully massaging the neck over the carotid sinus to slow heart rate in a person who has paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia
6. Carotid sinus syncope fainting due to inappropriate stimulation of the carotid sinus baroreceptors.
7. Hypertension persistently high blood pressure
8. Primary hypertension a persistently elevated blood pressure that can’t be attributed to any identifiable cause
9. Secondary hypertension has an identifiable underlying cause
10. Pheochromocytoma A tumor of the adrenal medulla, causes secondary hypertension
11. Aneurysm a thin, weakened section of the wall of an artery or a vein that bulges outward, forming a balloonlike sac, if untreated the aneurysm enlarges & the blood vessel will become so thin that it burst.
12. Aortography X
13. Carotid endarterectomy the removal of atherosclerotic plaque from the carotid artery to restore greater blood flow to the brain
14. Claudication pain & lameness or limping caused by defective circulation of the blood in the vessels of the limbs.
15. Deep vein thrombosis the presence of a thrombus (blood clot) in deep vein of the lower limbs.
16. Doppler ultrasound scanning imaging technique commonly used to measure blood flow
17. Femoral angiography an imaging technique in which a contrast medium is injected into the femoral artery & spreads to other arteries in the lower limb; used to diagnose narrowing or blockage of arteries in the lower limbs.
18. Hypotension Low blood pressure; most commonly used to describe an acute drop in blood pressure, as occurs during excessive blood loss.
19. Normotensive characterized by normal blood pressure
20. Occlusion closure or obstruction of the lumen of a structure like a blood vessel.
21. Orthostatic hypotension or postural hypotension An excessive lowering of systemic blood pressure when a person assumes an erect or semi
22. Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein, often in leg
23. Thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein involving clot formation
24. Veinpuncture The puncture of a vein, usually to withdraw blood for analysis or introduce a solution
25. White coat (office) hypertension A stress induced syndrome found in patients who have elevated blood pressure when being examined by health#care personnel but otherwise have normal blood pressure
Created by: toluwani



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