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Spicer Ex2 Review

Review Questions for Exam 2 Intro to Pathology, Spicer, Bastyr

QuestionAnswer
Pluripotent stem cells differentiate into WHAT 3 types of formed elements circulating in the plasma of the vascular system? - Erythrocytes (RBCs) - Leukocytes (WBCs) - Thrombocytes (Platelets)
DEFINE LEUKOCYTES: The leukocytes are involved in immune system functions.
Define PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL: Stem cell that can divide into a few other types of cells
Pluripotent cells divide into what types of cells in the immune system? Myeloid stem cell Lymphoid stem cell
Myeloid Stem Cells become: RBC Platelet Monocyte Granulocyte
Lymphoid stem cells become? NK cell B lymphocyte T lymphocyte
What are the types of Granulocytes? Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil
Monocytes become what type of cell in tissue? Macrophage
B Lymphocytes become what type of cell in tissue? Plasma Cell
Functions of RBC: ferrying oxygen & carbon dioxide between lungs and tissues
Functions of Platelet: clotting; inflammation
Functions of Monocyte: transforms into macrophages: fixed –vs- wandering, to perform phagocytosis.
Functions of Neutrophil: phagocytosis of bacteria
Functions of Eosinophil: combats effects of histamine during allergic reactions; attacks parasites
Functions of Basophil: releases heparin, histamine, & serotonin to intensify inflammation
Agranulocytes: Functions of Natural Killer Cell: attacks infectious microbes and tumor cells; primary defense. p146
Functions of B Cell: developed in bone marrow; becomes plasma cell and secretes antibodies against bacteria
Functions of T Cell: developed in thymus; attacks viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, some bacteria in highly targeted ways
Define: ANTIGEN (Ag): Any molecule capable of stimulating an immune reaction (most are proteins); don’t have to be “foreign”. Ex: measles virus Ex: transplanted tissue
Define: HAPTENS: small non-protein molecules that combine with a self-protein and stimulate an immune reaction. Ex: poison ivy
Define: CYTOKINES: small soluble molecules involved in inflammation; aim is to neutralize or destroy the target.
Define: ANTIBODIES (Abs): custom made proteins designed to attack other proteins; are released into bloodstream by plasma (B) cells.
Define: CYTOTOXIC T CELL: these attack cells have been stimulated by Ag.
Define: AUTOIMMUNE: immune system attacks self proteins, rather than non-self (foreign) proteins.
Define: MACROPHAGES: digest, prepare, and present foreign Ags to T cells
What are some various Types of immunity: Skin Sclera Respiratory tract Gastrointestinal tract Genitourinary tract Body fluids Cellular defenses Molecular defenses
What are the 2 distinct but inter-related components of Immunity? Humoral and Cellular
Define HUMORAL IMMUNITY: soluble antibody proteins are produced by B cells (plasma cells). These customized proteins can directly neutralize extracellular microbes, or can activate complement and effector cells (neutrophils/PMNs & macrophages) to kill microbes.
Define CELLULAR IMMUNITY: T cells directly lyse targets (cytotoxic T cells) or induce antimicrobial responses from other cells via cytokine production (helper T cells). T cells cannot “see” antigen unless it has been processed & presented by other cells.
How are NK cells different from other cellular immunity? NK cells act as a first line of defense against invaders, needing no activation.
Where are B Cells educated? “B” indicates bone-marrow educated.
Describe B Cells: B cells make up ~10-20% of circulating peripheral lymphocytes, and can be found in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, GI tract, bronchial tract.
What do stimulated B Cells become? Stimulated B cells become plasma cells that secrete immunoglobulins (mediators of humoral immunity) after encountering antigens.
What are the classes of immunoglobulins? There are 5 classes of immunoglobulins that form antibodies: Ig: G, M, D, A, E, (Ig stands for immunoglobulin)
What are the most prevalent antibodies? G, M, and A represent over 95% of all circulating antibodies. Effective against bacteria; not so effective against viruses or other microbes.
Describe IgM: Big heavy, first to be produced
Describe IgG: long term protein
Describe IgA: mucosal "immune paint"
Describe IgE: parasites, allergies, (w mast cells)
Describe IgD: on surface of B cells.
Describe Memory B cells: instead of producing Ab, they hang out as a trigger for a fast response the next time the Ag is encountered; this forms the basis for vaccinations. B cell function is critically dependent on T cells (to be discussed).
Where are T Cells educated? “T” indicates the organ these cells mature in: thymus.
functions of T Cells: T cells do 2 jobs: 1) induce humoral immunity (via B cells) AND 2) carry out cellular immunity.
What is the percentage of T Cells in the blood? T cells are ~ 80% of the lymphocytes in circulating blood; are the majority of lymphocytes in the spleen and lymph nodes.
How do T cells recognize antigens? Each T cell has a unique T Cell Receptor (TCR), a protein arrangement on its plasma membrane that will recognize one particular processed peptide fragment (antigen).
How do T cells identify pathogens? The billions of potential antigens/peptides in our world can be recognized by T cells because of rearrangement of genes (during development) that gives each T cell a unique TCR.
What are basic functions of T Cells? defend against viruses, fungi involved in tissue transplant rejections
What are the Types of T cells? helper, suppressor, memory, and cytotoxic – name indicates their jobs.
How does "memory" differ between T and B cells? T cells perform “delayed” immunity, a day or so, compared with B cells which are immediate.
Describe Macrophages: Macrophages process and present antigen to CD4+ helper T cells. Secrete cytokines influencing T-cell and B-cell, endothelium, and fibroblasts. Phagocytosis to kill microbes coated by antibody and/or complement, also important in humoral immunity.
Describe Natural Killer (NK) Cells: They are 10-15% of circulating blood lymphocytes. They contain abundant granules & can lyse tumor cells, virally infected cells, and some normal cells without prior sensitization (thus they represent the 1st line of defense).
Do NK cells destroy "self" cells? NK cells will not lyse healthy nucleated cells, but if a cell becomes “weird” (viral infection, tumor transformation, etc.), the NK cell will attack.
How do NK cells destroy antigens? NK cells secrete cytokines; gamma-interferon (interferes with viral replication) is especially noteworthy.
Created by: Bastyr40