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APES Test 2

Types of Pollution

emitted directly into the air from natural sources such as volcanoes, mobile sources, or stationary sources such as industrial smokestack primary pollutants
results from the reaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphere to form a new pollutant secondary pollutants
Six major air pollutants Nitrogen Dioxide, ozone, peroxyacyl nitrates, sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds
Two forms of smog industrial smog and photochemical smog
this smog tends to be sulfur-based and is also called gray-air smog industrial smog
this smog is catalyzed by UV radiation and tends to be nitrogen-based and is called brown-air smog photochemical smog
Two parts of acid deposition wet and dry deposition
this form of deposition refers to acidic rain, fog, and snow wet deposition
this form of deposition refers to acidic gases and particles dry deposition
Describe the process of acid deposition due to sulfur dioxide 1. sulfur dioxide put into atmosphere from burning coal and oil 2. combines with water vapor to form sulfurous acid 3. sulfurous acid reacts with oxygen to form sulfuric acid
describe the process of acid deposition due to nitrogen oxides 1. nitrogen oxides formed by burning coal, oil, or natural gas 2. Nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen gas to make nitrogen dioxide gas 3. nitrogen dioxide reacts with water vapor to produce nitrous and nitric acid
caused by the rapid melting of snow pack that contains dry acidic particles acid shock
this occurs in metropolitan areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings urban heat island
Three reasons for urban heat islands 1. urban areas are buildings that reduce the radiation of heat to the night sky 2. the lack of vegetation and standing water 3. high levels of pollution in urban areas can also create a localized greenhouse effect
this occurs when air temperature increases with height above the ground, as opposed to the normal decrease in temperature with height temperature inversion
this results from buildings reflecting and absorbing heat and blocking winds that reduce heat through convection canyon effect
Most common pollutants found indoors molds, bacteria, carbon monoxide, radon, allergens, formaldehyde, asbestos, and tobacco smoke.
strategies to improve air quality in general 1. emphasize tax incentives for pollution rather than fines and penalties 2. setting legislation standards 3. increasing funding for research for renewable resources 4. phasing out two-cycle engines 5. providing incentives to use mass transit
this program is designed to achieve significant environmental and public health benefits through reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides EPA's Acid Rain Program
what are the primary standards of the Clean Air Act protect human health
what are the secondary standards of the Clean Air Act protect materials, crops, climate, visibility, and personal comfort
this would have required the U.S. to reduce greenhouse emissions by 7% when compared with 199 levels over a five-year period Kyoto Protocol
Reasons why the U.S. didn't agree with the rest of the signing members of the Kyoto Protocol 1. cost of meeting the emission targets would be too high 2. the time frame was too short for implementation 3. there was no evidence of correlation between greenhouse gases and global warming
unwanted human created sound that disrupts the environment noise pollution
noise regulation by governmental agencies effectively began in the U.S. with the 1972_______ Federal Noise Control Act
Three kinds of hearing loss conductive, sensory, and neural
ways to reduce roadway noise noise barriers, limitations on vehicle speed, newer roadway surface technologies, limiting time for heavy-duty vehicles, computer-controlled traffic flow devices
ways to reduce aircraft noise quieter engines and rescheduling takeoff and landing times
ways to reduce industrial noise installation of noise barriers in workplaces
ways to reduce residential noise local laws and enforcement
occurs when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water point sources
delivers pollutants indirectly through transport or environmental change non-point source
sources of water pollution air pollution, chemicals, microbiological sources, mining, noise, nutrients, oxygen-depleting substances, suspended matter, and thermal sources
examples of air pollution mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, and ammonia fall out the air and into the water
examples of chemical pollution metals, solvents, oils, detergents, pesticides, and drug prescriptions that pass through the human body unaltered.
ways mining causes pollution exposes heavy metals and sulfur compounds, rainwater on piles of mining waste(tailings) transfers pollution to freshwater, pools of mine waste slurry stored behind dams and leak into water, and dump mining waste directly into rivers as method of disposal
three types of wastewater treatment primary treament, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment
this treatment is to reduce oils, grease, fats, sand, grit, and coarse solids primary treatment
designed to degrade substantially the biological content of the sewage derived from human waste, food waste, soaps, and detergetns secondary treatment
provides a final stage to raise the effluent quality to the standard required before it is discharged to the recieving environment tertiary treatment
types of solid waste organic, radioactive, recyclable, soiled, toxic
types of organic waste kitchen wastes, vegetables, flowers, leaves, or fruit
types of radioactive wastes spent fuel rods, smoke detectors,
types of recycleable wastes paper, glass, metal, plastics
types of soiled wastes hospital wastes
types of toxic wastes paints, chemicals, pesticides
pros of burning, incineration, or energy recovery heat can be used to supplement energy requirements, reduces impact on landfills, and mass burning is inexpensive
cons of burning, incineration, or energy recovery air pollution, sorting out things is expensive, no way of knowing toxic consequences, and adds to acid precipitation and global warming
pros of composting creates nutrient-rich soil, slows down soil erosion, and aids in water retention
cons of composting public reaction to odor and insects, not in my backyard (NIMBY)
pros and cons of remanufacturing recovers materials that would have been discarded but toxic materials may be present
pros and cons of exporting gets rid of problem immeadiately and is source of income for poor countries but expensive to transport and long-term effects are not known
pros and cons of de-toxyifying reduces the impact on the environment but is expensive
pros of land disposal-sanitary landfills waste is convered each day with dirt, plastic liners control leaching material into groundwater, collection of methange and use of fuel cells to supplement energy demand
cons of land disposal- sanitary landfills rising land prices, transportation costs, legal liability, suitable areas are limited
pros and cons of open dumping inexpensive but trash blows away in wind, vermin and disease, and leaching of toxic chemicals into the soil
pros and cons of ocean dumping inexpensive but debris floats to unintended areas, marine organisms impacted, and illegal in the U.S.
pros of recycling turns waste into inexpensive resource, reduces impact on landfills, reduces need for raw materials and the costs of it, reduces dependance on foreign oil, and reduces air and water pollution
cons of recycling poor regulation, fluctuations in market price, throwaway packaging more popular
pros and cons of reuse most efficient method of reclaiming materials, cloth diapers dont impact landfills, and industry models in place but cost of collecting materials is expensive and cost of washing and decontaminating containers is expensive
way thermal sources pollute water heat reduces the ability of water to hold oxygen and causes death to organisms that cannot tolerate heat or low oxygen levels
Minamata disease mercury-containg compounds from industry dumped into Minamata Bay in Japan, collected in fish and shellfish
Exxon Valdez oil tanker Exxon Valdez spilled crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska and killed countless organisms and destroyed plankton there
the process whereby human activity increases the amount of nutrients entering surface water cultural eutrophication
two importnat nutrients that cause cultural eutrophication nitrates and phosphates
steps involved in algal blooms 1.increased algae due to nitrate and phosphate increase that decreases light and kills deeper plants and oxygen 2. oxygen concentration decreases 3. fish and organisms die and contaminate water at a high rate 4. decaying fish and algae produce toxins
methods to control cultural eutrophication planting vegetation to slow erosion and absorb nutrients, control application/timing of fertilizer, control runoff from feedlots, and use biological controls like denitrifying bacteria
drinking water treatment methods adsorption, disinfection, filtration, flocculation-sedimentation, and ion exchange
contaiments stick to the surface of granular or powdered activated charcoal adsorption
chlorine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and UV radiation in this treatment method disinfection
removes clay, silt from the treatment process. clarifies water and enhances the effectiveness of the infection filtration
process that combines small particles into large particles that then settle out of the water as sediment flocculation-sedimentation
removes inorganic constituents. ion exchange
water treatment remediation technologies aeration, air stripping, in-well air stripping, deep-well injection
Created by: kp1793
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